The concept of federalism has been described in various ways. Luis Tillin, a noted scholar of federalism, has coined the concept of asymmetrical federalism to refer to Indian and Canadian models.
Asymmetric federalism refers to a kind of federalism in which power distribution, representation of states in the upper house, structure, and functions of the unit, etc are not similar. For Example, the US is a model of symmetric federalism in which all states enjoy equal power as well as they enjoy equal representation in the upper house of the federal government. But in the case of India and Canada, power distribution is uneven amongst the state and union territories.
In India, the majority of states are unicameral but few states have a bicameral legislature. Art. 371 and the 5th and 6th Schedule gives special treatment to north-eastern states, Scheduled Areas and Scheduled tribal areas respectively. Two UTs Delhi and Puducherry have a state legislature but other UTs do not have such a structure. Uttar Pradesh has 31 representations in the upper House but Sikkim has only one. The autonomous districts of Assam, Tripura, Meghalaya, and Mizoram have special power to enjoy local self-government.
Unlike US federalism, the Constitution of India and Canada provides uneven power, function, and structures. It is distributed asymmetrically.
In India, the structure of the local government is different in different states. Therefore, India is a case of asymmetrical federalism.