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How 'Climate change' is a major problem of the world? Examine its effects over different areas in India.

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Climate change is referred to a change in average weather conditions, or in the time variation of weather within the context of longer-term average conditions.

  • Human activities from industrial revolution time have manifested in fossil fuel consumption for power generation. The increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has led to global warming.

  • Several parts of the world have already experienced the warming of coastal waters. High temperature has led to change in rainfall patterns, and an increased intensity and frequency of storms.

  • Moreover, severe and irreversible climate and environmental changes, including the continued melting of polar ice layers, such as those found in Greenland and West Antarctica, could cause sea level rises exceeding 10 meters, harmful fluctuations in ocean currents, and increased methane emissions.

  • India is already experiencing a warm climate, dynamic monsoon pattern, unpredictable rainfall, frequent drought for several years.  Climate change is worsening the health of already malnourished poor people in India.

  • Densely populated cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Islands like Lakshadweep and Andaman and Nicobar are more vulnerable to the impact of sea-level rise. Natural resources like mangrove forests along the coastal line will be badly affected.

  • Climate change will adversely affect the availability of water to ever increasing populations. With change in climate, there will be adverse effects on growing patterns and rainfall thus food security may become critical. Reduced food production will increase inflation.

  • Melting of Himalayan glaciers like Pindari and Gangotri are likely to increase the level of waters in rivers and can lead to floods in major cities.

  • Himalayan species are very sensitive to changing climate and are expected to face extinction due to the changing climate.

  • With rising sea level, salt marshes and mudflats in the Rann of Kutch, the habitat of the Greater Flamingos, habitat of Indian wild asses, mangrove forest may be submerged.

 The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has issued an urgent call to bring about a marked reduction in global greenhouse gas emissions. It is a big challenge for India as well as the world thus immediate adequate actions are needed of the hour.

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