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How Deep Oceanic Mission will assist India in exploration of minerals? Explain the role of Oceans in providing resources to the next generation.

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How Deep Oceanic Mission will assist India in exploration of minerals? Explain the role of Oceans in providing resources to the next generation.

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(@nupur)
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Government of India under Union Ministry of Earth announce the annual budget of Rs. 8000 crore for *Deep Oceanic Mission* to study the aspects of ocean in an integrated framework. ISRO is working on its functioning.
India became the first country in the world to have given the pioneer area for exploration of deep ocean minerals through polymetallic nodules (PMN) in central Indian ocean basin.
PMN are rocks scattered on seabed containing iron, mangenese, nickel, Cobalt.
*Deep oceanic mission* is mainly a 5 yr plan for mining, researching and studying about the ocean floor that can help in forming power on decisions on climate change.
According to sources it will also develope an offshore desalination plant with the help of tidal energy.
*Role of oceans in providing resources*
Oceans cover 70percent of Earth surface and there are many natural processes which are responsible for the formation of minerals and resources.
Minerals found in oceans directly are like salt, mangnese, tin, tatinium, diamonds and fresh water.
According to sources ocean water contains about 3.5 percent dissolved solids, with more than 60 chemical elements identified.

 

 

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(@kritika_tripathi)
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The Deep Ocean Mission (DOM) is launched by Ministry of Earth Sciences in order to maximize the usage of deep oceanic resources. This project will provide a way forward and funds to help in exploration of the resources.

The mission will help in deep sea survey and mining using advanced underwater vehicles and robotic technologies to explore the compounds like Hydrocarbons (a major component of petroleum product) and other minerals. This will help India in exploiting unused resources found in deep ocean beds in Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB).

There is almost 380 million tons of polymetallic nodules (Manganese nodules) available at CIOB. Apart from this, ocean crust have large amount of iron, nickel, cobalt and copper. It has been estimated that only 10% recovery of 75,000 sq kms can meet energy requirement of the country for next 100 years.The exploration of oceanic resources play a very vital role for the welfare of the next generation.

 

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(@harini)
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Deep oceanic mission  of government of India to start by October 2020 for carrying out PMN mining in deep ocean beds

Equipment  for PMN mining

Submarine can only go to the depth of 200m  so we need to use submersible which can go to depth of 6000m apart from it need of underwater robots for mining activity are provided under umbrella of O SMART. ISRO has developed a 3 member capsule 

ECONOMIC BENEFITS 

pmn is potato shaped mineral rock on ocean bed rich in tin molybdenum copper  etc in CIOB ie centre of Indian Ocean basin 380 Mn metric tonne PMN found suffycing energy need of next 100 year apart from research on hydrocarbon setting up of desalination plants a vast knowledge of ocean beds

Countries in race 

Though India is pioneer  for PMN mining  given  by UN international seabed authority  over area of 75000 sq km in CIOB first generation PMN mining countries like Russia China South Korea  are in race carrying  out  process in region like cook's island

ENVIRONMENT EFFECT

many species  in underwater  regions  could be affected due to light and sound of mining  apart from potential destruction  due to oil spill of submersibles 

WAY FORWARD 

while exploring  the  minerals  care to be taken about its environmental impact  and sustainable  equipment  along with prevention  of over exploitation need of hour to make  this world a better  place  for future  generations and at the same ensure growth and development 

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(@deepak1996)
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Deep Ocean Mission of India focuses on deep sea mining in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). The basin  has been allotted to India by UN International Sea Bed Authority. The mission will use robotics and submersible manned vehicle for exploration and extraction of Poly-Metallic Nodules (PMN) from the ocean bed of depth 6000m.

Poly- Metallic Nodules are granules consisting important metals like nickel, copper, cobalt, titanium etc. According to the estimates 380 million metric tones of PMN is available in CIOB and even 10% recovery of it will suffice the energy requirement of India for next 100 years.

Oceans have already been playing very vital role in providing resources to mankind (eg. petroleum and gases which fulfils energy requirements). Hence along with India, countries like China, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Russia etc. also have joined the race for deep sea mining.

Though the extraction will have environmental impacts hampering the marine biodiversity. But scaling the proper rate of extraction can mitigate the adverse effects while providing ample resources to next generations. Hence the Ministry of Earth Sciences has sanctioned Rs 8000 crore in the ambitious project of Deep Ocean Mission.  

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