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How Deep Oceanic Mission will assist India in exploration of minerals? Explain the role of Oceans in providing resources to the next generation.

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Deep Oceanic mission is a programme under Ministry of Earth Science that worth 8000 crore.


  • Deep ocean exploration (metals and minerals)
  • Underwater vehicles and robotic technology
  • Ocean climate change advisory service 
  • Offshore desalination plant works with tidal energy
  • Underwater vehicles and robotics technology development.


  • Developing submersible vehicles with a depth coverage of 6000m and 3 people on board aiding India in deep mineral exploration
  • It is based on the allocation of about 750000 sqkm Central Indian ocean basin by UN International sea bed authority.
  • Indian ocean sea bed has 380 million metric tonnes of Polymetallic nodules (PMN)
  • PMN are rich in Manganese copper cobalt nickel and Iron etc.

Oceans role upon future generation:

  • 10% of PMN reserves meet energy needs of about next 100year
  • Best resource for fisheries (4.4 million metric ton fisheries) -source of food and employment.
  • Rich in mineral and energy (petroleum and gas hydrate)
  • Improvised transportation route that replenish future trade.


India has implemented schemes such as ‘Blue growth initiative’, O-SMART, ‘Sagarmala’ etc to utilize the unexplored resources and sustainable use of the same.

Hence "Blue economy boost the economy in future".


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               Deep Ocean Mission is the mission of ISRO to study the various aspects of ocean. It is a underwater robotics related technology. The focus of the mission will be on deep-sea mining and ocean climate change etc. The "Deep Water Mission" explores depth of at least up to 6000 meters.

  • Significance/Role of the mission: 
  1. The deep ocean mission plan will enable India to develop capabilities to exploit resources in the Indian ocean basin.
  2. Indian ocean contains contains vast amount of minerals like zinc, manganese, and rare earth minerals. These can be used by many Industries to produce the final products.
  3. The main energy resources present in Indian Ocean is petroleum and gas hydrates.
  4. This mission will also help in employment generation and in improved livelihood of many.
  5. It will help to study the impact of climate change on ocean. And can be prepared for the disaster in advance.

                 This Deep Ocean Mission of ISRO Which is announced by the Union Minister of Earth Sciences, will help the India to achieve the SDG-14 that is Life Below Water. This mission will play a vital role in providing resources for the future generations. This mission will also help to increase the economy of the country.


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Two key projects are planned in the ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ report include a desalination plant powered by tidal energy and a submersible vehicle that can explore depths of at least 6,000 metres.

Significance of the Mission for Indian economy:

  1. Capabilities development: The ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ plan will enable India to develop capabilities to exploit resources in the Indian Ocean Basin. IOB reserve contain deposits of metal like iron nickle, mangenese cobal                                             
  2. Sustainable development: Marine resources from Indian Ocean would serve as the backbone of India’s economic growth and can help India to become a 5 trillion dollar economy by 2022. Blue economy, through sustainable use of oceans, has great potential for boosting the economic growth                                                                                                                  
  3. Employment generation: It will provide jobs, improved livelihoods to many. This will help in inclusive growth                       
  4. Climate Change: It will help in study Impact of climate change on ocean. This would help India to prepare for any disaster due to climate change. Also, Oceans provide an alternate and more cleaner source of energy. It also act as an important carbon sink. This will help in mitigating climate change                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            China, France, Germany, Japan, South Korea, Russia and also some small islands such as the Cook Islands, Kiribati have joined the race for deep sea mining..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 14), calls to conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development. Thus deep ocean mission is a right step in this direction.
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Deep Ocean Mission is the Govt. of India Mission to study the various aspect of ocean in an integrated framework. Recently Ministry of Earth sciences plans Rs.8000 crore for this mission to boost India's sea exploration capabilities.

As India has been alloted 75000 square kilometres in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) by UN sea bed authority for exploration of PMN ( POLY METALLIC NODULES),This "DOM" Mission will enable India to develope capabilities to exploit resources in the CIOB. Actual PMN mainly contains Manganese, cobalt,Nickel,Copper etc, of which Nickel,Cobalt and Copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.

This Mission has already been estimated that 380million metric tonnes of PMN nodules are available at the bottom of sea  in central ocean. And according to this plan,10% of recovery of that large researve can meet the energy requirement of India for next 100 years.

Role of Oceans in providing Resources to the next generation

1. Minerals: Various kinds of minerals like salt, Potassium etc are found in the deep sea. These Minerals helps in economic growth by employment generation through their mining and other activity.

2.Energy: Oceans often provide the conventional sources of Energy like oil, natural gas etc. These sources provide us plenty of energy,

3.Protection From Disaster: Coral Reefs, Mangroves etc acts as a first line defence in case of cyclones, Tsunamy etc.

4.Trade and Commerce : More than 60-70% trade of the world pass through ocean route like Malacca.

5.Blue Economy: It can provide huge boost to our economic growth.

                      It is said that, One who controls the Ocean controls the World. But one thing we should remember , if we can not explored the source sustainably, it might create huge trouble for Future generation.

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United Nations Convention on the law of the sea gives the rights to a state regarding the sea exploration for marine resources which is unexplored and unutilized by India. The study of the ocean was begun with polymetallic nodules (PMN) initiated at CSIR-NIO (National Institute of Oceanography) in Arabian Sea in 1981. Initiatives of Ministry of Earth Sciences led to launch of ‘Deep Ocean Mission’ to study about oceans and boost India’s Sea Exploration capabilities like Exploration of Space by ISRO.

This mission will focus on deep-sea mining, ocean climate change advisory services, underwater vehicles and underwater robotics related technologies. India will be benefited through:

  •  Establishment of desalination plant powered by tidal energy;
  • Development of submersible vehicle capable of exploring depths of at least 6,000 meters whereas submarines can reach only about 200 meters;
  •  Deep oceanic survey and fishing;
  •  Development of oceanic climate change advisory services;
  •  Development of technology for sustainable use of marine resources.

It is envisaged that 10% of recovery of that large reserve can meet the energy requirement of India for the next 100 years. It has been estimated that 380 million metric tonnes of polymetallic nodules are available at the bottom of the seas in the Central Indian Ocean. Minerals like manganese, iron, nickel, copper, cobalt, lead, molybdenum, cadmium, vanadium, titanium can be explored. Out of these nickels, cobalt and copper are considered to be of economic and strategic importance.


Thus huge opportunities are underlying, it also entails commercial viability in the light of technological challenges. More studies should be carried out to understand sustainable ways of excavation of mineral resources.

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