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Q1. Why has the problem of Naxalism become persistent in India? Critically Analyse the strategy employed by the Government, in wake of recent Sukma failure of security forces? View Points: Define naxalism or Left wing extremism and use some data to...

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Q1. Why has the problem of Naxalism become persistent in India? Critically Analyse the strategy employed by the Government, in wake of recent Sukma failure of security forces? 


View Points:

  • Define naxalism or Left wing extremism and use some data to state the gravity of threat it poses.
  • Give reasons for the continuous existence of naxalism in India.
  • Explain with examples how the government has failed to curb them.
  • Way forward to resolve the issue.
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Introduction                                                                                                                                                                              Left wing extremism (LWE) also known as by various other names such as naxalism and Maoism, is a form of armed insurgency against the state motivated by leftist ideologies. There are several LWE organizations in the country operating in many areas. The common theme among all the groups is that they are anti-governmental and desire a violent mass struggle. They reject parliamentary democracy and are aiming at waging an armed rebellion against the government. Some groups are also engaged in parliamentary politics while at the same time, maintain underground cadres for example communist party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation and communist party of India(Marxist-Leninist) Jana shakti. The Maoist desire their ideology from Maoism, a form of communalism espoused by Mao Zedong of china.                                                                                                           Threats/ Some recent destructive activities:                                                                                                      * 316 attacks were carried out on railways, telecom, transmission lines, mines, and steel plants between January2006 and June 2010.        * Human lives lost- it has been estimated that in the last 13 and half years approximately 8000 human lives were lost due to violence perpetrated by na  naxalites.                                                             * Naxals have destroyed hundreds of roads, bridges, culverts, etc.                                                   * They have destroyed hundresds of mobile towers of BSNL, Airtel, Reliance in Dante Wada, Bijapur, Sukma, Gaya ,and Raigad.                              * They illegally collect money from government schemes like Sarva shiksha abhiyan, MGNREGA, Public distribution system(PDS).                               * Huge forest lands have been destroyed for setting up their temporary camps.                            * The ongoing conflict has affected domestic trade, tourism, industries and agriculture.                 

Reasons for continuous existence of Naxalism/ causes:                                                                            1. The chief reason behind the rise of the movement was the severe lack of development of these regions despite being mineral-rich.              2. They were largely Tribal belts that were neglected by government and also by the mainstream media.                                                      3. There was gross ineffectivess and mismanagement in the administrative machinery. Corruption was also rampant leading to misery for the people.                                                                4. The Alienation and social exclusion of large groups of people led to sections of them selling a disconnect with the Government of the day and also Society at large.                                                      5. The issue of Jal-Jungle-Jameen (water, forest, land) is at the centre of these rewards initially tribal people are routinely exploited for their mineral-rich land. There is illegal encroachment and the forest dwellers are bereft of rights in their own land.                                                                6. The increase in inter regional and intra regional differences and inequalities lead to people using naxalism. The government policies have failed to address these issue.     

Measures taken so far:

1. SAMADHAN- stands for smart leadership, aggressive strategy, motivation and training actionable intelligence, dashboard based KPIs (key performance indicators) and KRAs(key result areas) harnessing technology and action plan for each theatre and no access to financing.                  2. Police modernization scheme in areas affected by naxal movements like in Chhattisgarh, Jarkhand, Odisha, West Bengal.                                  3. Establishment of national security guard (NSG) hub at Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad and Mumbai.  4. Sanctioning of new specialised India reserve battalions (SIRB).                                                            5. Unlawful activities(prevention) act 1967 has been amended to strengthen the punitive measures.                                                                        6. Security related expenditure (SRE)scheme- under this Central Government reimburses security related expenditure to the LWE affected state governments. 

Loopholes/government fail to curb them:

1. In effective democratic decentralisation- half hearted and weak ground implementation of PESA provisions of the sixth and fifth schedule and even PRIs has definitely helped in not containing the problem.                                              2. Absence of co-ordinated proactive Vigilance- week coordination between Central and state Agencies results in the development of security voids captured subsequently by Naxals.                3. Inability to curb terror financing -any act of violence cannot be sustained without finance. Demonetization though attempted failed to check it comprehensively.                                            4. Poor forest governance continuous- weakening of forest governance laws and related rights of dwellers as evidence through recent draft  India forest act and the decision of eviction of forest dwellers by SC has made meaningful engagement difficult and uncertain.                                                5. Standard operating procedures-  all major naxal attacks have been possible going to failure of effective implementation of SOPs. In the recent attack in Dantewada (C.G), it was emerged that the troops did not follow SOPs.

Way forward:       

▪The government has to tackle certain challenges in dealing with the naxals. The naxal groups have frequently lent moral support to insurgent group in J&K.                                              ▪It is also suspected that Pakistan ISI is trying to influence these groups through the land border with Nepal. This has serious implications for the country's security proper intelligence inputs coupled with adequate fortification of security forces should be done.                                                  ▪Along with these sufficient and speedy development should be brought about in the worst-affected areas as only this will render the Maoists insignificant. As long as there is disillusionment with the authorities, such elements will always find sympathisers among sections of the people.

Hence, to root out the problem in its entirety, proper inclusive development should be ushered in.