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The foundation of Indian National movement was a blend of many voices which emerged in 20th century. Discuss.

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The foundation of Indian National movement was a blend of many voices
which emerged in 20th century. Discuss.

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The period between 1917 and 1947 is considered as Gandhian phase in the history of the Indian national movement. Gandhian Phase in Indian freedom struggle is undoubtedly remarkable because of the perspective Gandhiji provided to the masses and the way he guided the freedom fighters with the means of truth and non-violence.

But there were numerous other simultaneous factors that further strengthened Gandhi’s efforts and contributed to the nationalist movement.

Voices which strengthened and enriched the nationalist movement:


  • Khilafat Movement (1919–24): pan-Islamic force in India that arose in 1919 in an effort to salvage the Ottoman caliph as a symbol of unity among the Muslim community in India during the British raj. The movement was initially bolstered by Gandhi’s noncooperation movement but fell apart after the abolition of the caliphate in 1924.
  • Socialist Idea: In this phase, the idea of socialism emerges after the Russian Revolution. The leaders like JL Nehru and SC Bose inclined towards socialist ideology. INC supported the idea of Socialism in their work. INC supported the concept called the Planning Committee. The first attempt to develop a national plan for India came up in 1938 in the Haripur session of INC.
  • Swarajists and the No-Changers: No-changers continued their constructive program of spinning, temperance, Hindu-Muslim unity, removal of untouchability, etc whereas Swarajists won the election of Central Legislative Assembly in November 1923 filling the political void while the national movement was regaining its strength.
  • Hindu Nationalist: Hindu Mahasabha (1915) and RSS (1925) established themselves with nationalist ideas. They supported the extreme idea of communal nationalism.
  • Revolutionaries: such as R.P. Bismil, C.S. Azad and Bhagat Singh among others took the responsibilities of informing people about a necessary revolution to uproot the British Empire. The Revolutionary Movement in Bengal led by Surya Sen is notable because of the role of revolutionary women who participated.


  • Workers: Ahmedabad Satyagraha has led to the formation of the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association. They have become a crucial force for the freedom movement later. All the major congress led movements saw the participation of the working class in the form of railway strikes, industry strikes and many.
  • Women from all over India were not left alone. They came forward and equally contributed to the national movement. Kasturba Gandhi, Vijay Laxmi Pandit, Aruna Asaf Ali, Bhikaji Cama are some of the most prominent who assumed leadership at different fronts. Dharasana Satyagraha led by Sarojni Naidu stands as a famous example of women’s role in INM.
  • Even the Business class participated by giving financial assistance and rejecting imported goods Every class, section, age group, political ideology emerged, came forward and contributed to the national movement. 


The Gandhian phase saw the enrichment of the National movement with wider public participation, which was missing during the moderate and extremist phase of the struggle. This multidimensional nature of the movement is one of the reasons for its success in 1947 when finally all the unheard voices till then were heard.

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Indian National Movement was not a single event but a process in itself to
which new objectives, methods, were added in the 20th century. These new
objectives such as social justice along with political independence was the
blend of many voices in the freedom struggle.
1) Many voices such as peasants, working class, Extremist leaders, women,
revolutionary activist, non-Brahmin, Dalit, Muslim and Hindu organisations, the
capitalist class, the socialist strengthened their opinion in this period and thus
the foundation of Indian National Movement was attached with new visions.
2) These voices strengthen the foundation in following ways
a) The idea of socialism founded a place in Indian National Movement due to
the strength provided by peasants, workers, and socialist leaders.
b) The socio religious organizations took the issue of cultural integration which
strengthened the national consciousness
c) The political organisations such as congress socialist party gave a organised
form to voice of people from downtrodden society
d) The working-class movement, the formation of All India Trade Unions
voiced for the improvement in working conditions, increase pay and playing a
decisive role in various mass movements when called upon.
e) Similarly, the Dalits, the harijans, the reformers like Ambedkar voiced
against the injustice in the society and built a United struggle against the evils
which helped build the pillar of nation building.
f) The Revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, Kalpana Dutt added the element of
direct struggle to the National movement, whereas the women across all class,
caste and religious also organised themselves in masses, associations to put
forth their demand and contributed as participant and as leaders in many

3) These voices found a place in the Indian National Movement due to
a) Enlightenment which gave the ideals of rights, humanism, liberty etc
b) Increase in means of communication which helped the masses to voice their
demands, opinions
c) Evolvement of simple techniques such as Satyagrahas
d) Influence of ideas from Russian revolution etc
e) Empowerment through education, experience
Though, some voices in the form of Muslim league created chaos in the later
part of Indian National movement, the significance of these many voices are
reflected in the ideals of the Indian constitution and the freedom achieved
from the British imperialism