E-governance expands to electronic governance, is the integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in all the processes of government functioning in order to bring about ‘Simple, Moral, Accountable, Responsive and Transparent' (SMART) governance with the aim of enhancing government ability to address the needs of the general public. The basic purpose of e-governance is to simplify processes for all, i.e. government, citizens, businesses, etc. at National, State and local levels.
In short, it is the use of electronic means, to promote good governance. It connotes the implementation of information technology in the government processes and functions so as to cause simple, moral, accountable and transparent governance. It entails the access and delivery of government services, dissemination of information, and communication in a quick and efficient manner.
Benefits of E-governance:
- Reduces corruption
- High transparency
- Increased convenience
- Growth in GDP
- Direct participation of constituents
- Reduction in overall cost
- Expanded reach of government
Through e-governance, the government plans to raise the coverage and quality of information and services provided to the general public, by the use of ICT in an easy, economical and effective manner. The process is extremely complicated which requires the proper arrangement of hardware, software, networking and indeed re-engineering of all the processes to facilitate better delivery of services.
Limitations of E-Government:
The primary disadvantages of e-government is the absence of public Internet access for all citizens, reliability of the published information on the web by the governmental agencies, and also capabilities of government and its agencies which can affect public opinions potentially.
Types of Models in E-Governance:
- G2G (Government to Government): When the exchange of information and services is within the periphery of the government, it is termed as G2G interaction. This can be both horizontal, i.e. among various government entities and vertical, i.e. between national, state and local government entities and within different levels of the entity.
- G2C (Government to Citizen): The interaction amidst the government and general public is G2C interaction. Here an interface is set up between government and citizens, which enables citizens to get access to a wide variety of public services. The citizens have the freedom to share their views and grievances on government policies anytime, anywhere.
- G2B (Government to Business): In this case, e-governance helps the business class to interact with the government seamlessly. It aims at eliminating red-tapism, saving time, cost and establishing transparency in the business environment, while interacting with the government.
- G2E (Government to Employees): The government of any country is the biggest employer and so it also deals with employees on a regular basis, as other employers do. ICT helps in making the interaction between government and employees fast and efficient, along with raising their level of satisfaction by providing perquisites and add-on benefits.
E-governance can only be possible if the government is ready for it. It is not a one-day task, and so the government has to make plans and implement them before switching to it. Some of the measures include Investment in telecommunication infrastructure, budget resources, ensure security, monitor assessment, internet connectivity speed, promote awareness among public regarding the importance, support from all government departments and so forth.
E-governance has a great role to play, that improves and supports all tasks performed by the government department and agencies, because it simplifies the task on the one hand and increases the quality of work on the other. The aim of any e-governance initiative should be to ensure citizen participation and empowerment with the technology that is transformative, affordable and sustainable. Thus e-governance is necessary to achieve the motto of ‘Maximum Governance with Minimum Government’.