17 Jan CHALLENGES IN INDIA TO REAP THE DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND
CHALLENGES IN INDIA TO REAP THE DEMOGRAPHIC DIVIDEND- Today Current Affairs
GS- 3 POPULATION RELATED ISSUES
India has one of the youngest populations in the aging world. Since 2013 India’s working age population has grown larger than the dependent population. The hope is that as the young Indian population enters the working age, it will lead to higher economic growth.
Healthcare provision: The Hindu Analysis
- Health care provision in India is grossly inadequate and access to health care is highly inequitable the same was highlighted by NFHS-5
- Lack of efficient public healthcare and burden of out of pocket health expenditures.
- In effective functioning of PDS, growing economic inequalities and lack of nutritional awareness, pose challenges in combating malnutrition.
State of literacy: The Hindu Analysis
- Basic literacy in the overall population has progressed modestly.
- The state of functional literacy and professional scale is poor.
- Indian graduates have low employability and do not meet changing economic structure aur support global competitiveness.
Rising inequality: The Hindu Analysis
- Desh growing inequality across social groups and income groups which translate itself into poor socio-economic mobility.
- Lack of socio-economic mobility hinders human capital development and traps a large section of the population in the vicious cycle of poverty.
Lack of skilling: The Hindu Analysis
- According to a National sample survey out of the 470 million population of working age in India, only 10% receive any kind of training or access to skilled employment opportunities.
- The huge mismatch between demand and supply in the skilled work force and employment opportunity could strain the economy in the long run.
- There is a disconnect between India’s rate of technological growth and ability to distribute the games from it.
- Use of technical advancement has been concentrated in few sectors and benefit accured bi a few elitist sections of the society.
Jobless growth and falling female labour force participation.
- India’s high growth rate phase (2004-05 to 2010-11) has created significantly fewer jobs as compared to previous decades of economic growth.
- About 47 percent of the population is dependent on agriculture.
- Majority of the workforce is employed in the unorganised sector.
- Show show culture factor and rising family income have been the main reason for the decline in India’s female labour force participation.
- A significant proportion of qualified women drop out of the workforce for reasons ranging from no suitable jobs in the locality to female responsibilities and marriage.
- Multipronged approach is imperative to reap the demographic dividend.
- The gap in the expenditure on social infrastructure like health and education should be closed by strengthening the delivery mechanism of the government initiative.
- As recommended by the national health policy 2017 and the national education policy 2020, India needs to increase its spending on health and education to at least 2.5 % and 6% of GDP respectively from its current level.
- India has to invest more in human capital formation at all levels, from primary education two higher education, research and development as well as vocational training to increase the skill set of its growing working age population.
- Bridging the gender gap in education, skills development, employment and reducing social inequalities prevalent in the society to enhance human capabilities.
- There is also a need to engage with the youth and create an enabling environment for entrepreneurship.
- Social policies for each state must be differentiated to accommodate different rates of population growth.