Chandrayaan 3 

Chandrayaan 3 

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “Chandrayaan 3”. The topic “Chandrayaan 3” has relevance in the “Science and Technology” section of the UPSC CSE exam.

For Prelims:

What is Chandrayaan? What are the components and features? 

For Mains:

GS2: Achievements of Indians in Science and Technology, Awareness of Space 

Why in the news?

India successfully launched its third Moon Mission named Chandrayaan- 3 on 14th July 2023 from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Sriharikota.



Chandrayaan-3 is a mission that aims to prove the ability to land and move safely on the lunar surface.

The lunar mission is a successor to Chandrayaan 2, which was launched in September 2019 but failed to land on the moon due to problems with its onboard computer and propulsion system.


Mission Objectives:

  • To land safely on the lunar surface
  • To deploy a rover to explore the surface of the moon
  • To conduct scientific experiments on the moon


Components of Chandrayaan- 3: 

  • Chandrayaan-3 is a mission comprising three modules: the Lander module (LM), the Propulsion module (PM), and the Rover. The Lander and Rover both carry scientific equipment to conduct experiments on the moon’s surface.
  • Propulsion module
      • The Propulsion module’s primary function is to transport the Lander from the launch vehicle to a final lunar orbit and then separate from it. 
      • The Propulsion module also has a scientific payload that will be operated after the Lander module has separated.
  • Vikram Lander module
      • It is capable of performing a soft landing on a specified lunar site.
  • Pragyan Rover 
    • The rover, which will be deployed by the lander, will analyse the chemical composition of the lunar surface as it travels.
  • The GSLV-Mk3 rocket will launch Chandrayaan-3 into an Elliptic Parking Orbit (EPO) that is approximately 170 x 36500 km in size.


Propulsion Module Payload:

Spectro-polarimetry of HAbitable Planet Earth (SHAPE) Future discoveries of smaller exoplanets in reflected light could help us probe habitability and life on other worlds.


Lander payloads: 

Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment (ChaSTE) Measures the thermal conductivity and temperature of the lunar surface.
Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity (ILSA) Measures the seismicity around the landing site.
Langmuir Probe (LP) Estimates the plasma density and its variations.
Passive Laser Retroreflector Array from NASA Accommodated for lunar laser ranging studies.


Rover payloads: 

Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS)  For deriving the elemental composition in the vicinity of the landing site.
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)

Chandrayaan- 3 Details

Feature Details
Launcher  LVM3 M4 (GSLV Mk III)
Components Lander module (LM), Propulsion module (PM), and Rover
Landing Site Moon’s South Pole- Around 70 degrees South of Equator 
Rover Operating time 1 lunar day, equivalent to Forteen Earth days.
Trajectory Same as Chandrayaan 2, with the propulsion module orbiting Earth several times before slingshotting towards the moon.
Orbit The module will lower itself to a 100 x 100 km circular orbit before the lander detaches and descends to the surface.
Travel time Approximately one month from the time of launch.
Landing date Scheduled for August 23-24, but may change depending on when the Sun rises over the moon.

Significance of South Pole Landing: 

  • Chandrayaan-3 will be the first mission in the world to make a soft landing near the lunar south pole.
  • The south pole is a challenging location for Earthlings to land, live, and work, but it has unique characteristics that could lead to unprecedented scientific discoveries.
  • Lunar polar volatiles are chemical elements or compounds that melt or evaporate at moderately warm temperatures and can be found on the moon.
  • Space missions could help us understand the distribution of lunar polar volatiles.
  • If lunar polar volatiles contain elements like hydrogen and oxygen, this could have a profound impact on the future of deep space exploration and commerce.


Why India Wants to Do a Mission to the Moon

  • Scientific research: 
    • The moon is a unique and valuable natural laboratory for scientific research. 
    • India’s space program has a long history of conducting scientific research on the moon, and the Chandrayaan-3 mission will continue this tradition. 
    • The mission will study the composition of the lunar surface, the presence of water ice, and the history of lunar impacts. 
    • This information will help us to better understand the formation and evolution of the moon, and it could also have implications for the future of human exploration of the moon.
  • Technological development: 
    • The Chandrayaan-3 mission will also help to develop India’s space technology. 
    • The mission will require the development of new technologies for landing on the moon, exploring the lunar surface, and conducting scientific research. 
    • These technologies will have applications in other areas of space exploration, as well as in other fields such as agriculture, healthcare, and manufacturing.
  • National pride: 
    • The Chandrayaan-3 mission will be a major achievement for India’s space program, and it will be a source of pride for the Indian people. 
    • The mission will demonstrate India’s capabilities in space exploration and will help to put the country at the forefront of this field.



ISRO’s Chandrayaan-3 takes off for the moon: Here’s everything you need to know | Explained News,The Indian Express

Image Credits: ISRO, The Indian Express  

plutus ias current affairs eng med 17th July 2023


Q1. With reference to Chandrayaan- 3, consider the following statements: 

  1. Chandrayaan-3 will become the world’s third mission to soft-land near the lunar south pole.
  2. The mission that aims to demonstrate the capability of landing and roving on the lunar surface safely.
  3. Only the Lander and Rover module are designed to do scientific experiments and are fitted with payloads. 

Which of the statements given above is/are NOT correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only 

(d) None 

Answer: (c) 


Q2. Consider the following: 

  1. GSLV Mk-III has three stages- Solid, Liquid and Solid. 
  2. The GSLV is also called the workhorse of ISRO. 
  3. The Chandrayaan- 3 Mission is launched on GSLV Mk-III into Geostationary Orbit. 
  4. PSLV, another ISRO launcher, has four stages.

How many of the above-mentioned statements are correct ?

(a) Only one 

(b) Only two 

(c) Only three 

(d) All Four 

Answer: (a)

Q3. Explain the significance of India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission and its potential impact

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