Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)

Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)”. The topic “Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)” has relevance in the “Economy” section of the UPSC CSE exam.

For Prelims:
What is Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) and its Ministry?

For Mains:

GS2: Government Policies & Interventions

GS3: Economics of Animal Rearing

What is Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) and its need? 

What are its components and significant Intitatives?

Why in the news?

The Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) has garnered attention in recent news due to its significant impact on India’s agricultural and dairy sectors. 


Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM)

  • The Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM), operational since December 2014, focuses on developing and conserving indigenous bovine breeds in India under the Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
  • It aims to boost milk production, enhance bovine productivity, and make dairy farming more profitable for rural farmers. 
  • It was Integrated into the Rashtriya Pashudhan Vikas Yojna in 2021 with a budget of Rs. 2400 crore.
  • RGM has the potential to significantly benefit small farmers, empowering women involved in livestock farming.

Conservation of Indigenous Breeds: The Need of the Hour

  • Rich Bovine Population in India: India is home to the most cattle, followed by Brazil, China, and the United States. India boasts a vast bovine population, with a total of 299.6 million, comprising 190.9 million cattle and 108.7 million buffaloes. Remarkably, approximately 80% of these cattle are indigenous breeds, often referred to as non-descript breeds. 
  • Inherent Robustness and Resilience: Indigenous bovine breeds in India exhibit inherent robustness and resilience. They have adapted to the diverse climates and environmental conditions in their respective breeding regions.
  • Quality of Milk: Milk from indigenous bovine breeds is characterized by its high fat and Solid-Not-Fat (SNF) content. This quality makes them valuable for dairy production.
  • Climate Change Resilience: Research indicates that indigenous breeds are likely to be less impacted by climate change compared to exotic breeds. They have evolved to withstand regional climate fluctuations, making them a sustainable choice for the future.
  • Threatened Indigenous Breeds: Despite their unique advantages, several indigenous breeds, such as Punganur, are facing the threat of extinction. The overall population of indigenous breeds is declining.



  • Enhancing Productivity with Advanced Technologies
  • Promotion of High Genetic Merit Bulls
  • Strengthening Artificial Insemination Services
  • Scientific Conservation of Indigenous Breeds


Funding Pattern: 

  • The Rashtriya Gokul Mission operates on a 100% grant-in-aid basis for most of its components. 
  • Exceptions:
    • Accelerated Breed Improvement Programme: Farmers receive a subsidy of Rs 5000 per IVF pregnancy as a government share.
    • Promoting Sex Sorted Semen: Participating farmers receive a subsidy covering up to 50% of the cost of sex-sorted semen.
    • Establishment of Breed Multiplication Farms: Entrepreneurs can access a subsidy covering up to 50% of the capital cost, with a maximum limit of Rs. 2.00 crore per project.

Components of RGM:

  • Availability of High Genetic Merit Germplasm
    • Bull Production Programme
    • Support to Semen Stations: Strengthening existing semen stations.
    • Implementation of IVF Technology
    • Breed Multiplication Farms
  • Extension of Artificial Insemination Network
    • Establishment of MAITRIs
    • Nationwide Artificial Insemination Programme
    • Use of Sex Sorted Semen for Assured Pregnancy
    • Implementation of National Digital Livestock Mission (Livestack)
  • Development and Conservation of Indigenous Breeds
    • Assistance to Gaushalas, Gosadans, and Pinjrapole
    • Administrative expenditure/operation of Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog
  • Skill Development 
  • Farmers Awareness 
  • Research Development and Innovation in Bovine Breeding


Duration, Scope and Area of Operation:

  • The Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) will be implemented nationwide from 2021-2022 to 2025-26.
  • Scope: All components related to genetic improvement of the bovine population, as detailed in the program guidelines, are eligible for funding under RGM.


Implementing Agencies (IAs): 

  • These include state livestock development boards, state milk federations, central frozen semen production and training institutes, central cattle breeding farms, central herd registration schemes, the National Dairy Development Board, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and its institutes, central universities, and government veterinary universities.


Significant Initiatives under RGM:

  • Awards for Encouraging Farmers and Breeder Societies:
    • Gopal Ratna awards recognize farmers maintaining the best herd of indigenous breeds and practicing optimal management practices.
    • Kamdhenu awards are given to institutions, trusts, NGOs, Gaushalas, or well-managed Breeders’ Societies.
  • Gokul Gram:
    • RGM aims to establish integrated cattle development centers known as ‘Gokul Grams.’ These centers focus on the development of indigenous breeds, including up to 40% nondescript breeds.
    • 20 Gokul Grams have been sanctioned for 13 states with an allocated budget of Rs 197.67 crores.
  • National Kamdhenu Breeding Centre:
    • Two “National Kamdhenu Breeding Centres” (NKBC) are being established under RGM as Centers of Excellence for the holistic and scientific development and conservation of indigenous breeds.
    • Rs. 25 crore each has been released to Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh for the establishment of NKBC.
  • “E-Pashu Haat” – Nakul Prajnan Bazaar:
    • E-Pashu Haat is an e-market portal connecting breeders and farmers, providing a platform for the trade of disease-free bovine germplasm, including semen, embryos, calves, heifers, and adult bovines. It enhances accessibility to quality breeding materials.
  • Pashu Sanjivni:
    • Pashu Sanjivni is an Animal Wellness Programme that involves providing Animal Health cards with UID identification. It involves uploading data on a National Database to monitor and improve animal health.
  • Advanced Reproductive Technology:
    • RGM includes advanced reproductive technologies like In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF) and Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET) techniques. It aims to improve the availability of disease-free female bovines.
  • National Bovine Genomic Center for Indigenous Breeds (NBGC-IB):
    • NBGC-IB will be established to select breeding bulls of high genetic merit at a young age using precise gene-based technology. This technology-driven initiative will contribute to improving the genetic quality of indigenous breeds.
  • Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF):
    • It has been introduced to encourage eligible entities (EEs) to invest in various areas, including –
      • dairy and meat processing, 
      • animal feed plants
      • breed improvement technology
      • breed multiplication farms
      • technology-assisted model farms
  • Breed Multiplication Farms (BMF):
    • These farms aim to provide farmers with high genetic merit heifers of cattle and buffalo breeds.
    • Government offers a 50% capital subsidy (up to Rs. 2.00 Crore) to interested entrepreneurs for constructing cattle sheds, acquiring equipment, and procuring elite bull mothers.
  • e-GOPALA 
    • It offers farmers across the country a platform to effectively manage their livestock. This includes facilitating the purchase and sale of disease-free germplasm in various forms such as semen and embryos. 
    • Additionally, e-GOPALA ensures the availability of high-quality breeding services like Artificial Insemination, veterinary first aid, vaccinations, and treatments for animals. 
    • It also provides guidance to farmers on animal nutrition and the use of suitable Ayurvedic or ethno-veterinary medicines for animal care. 


These initiatives under the Rashtriya Gokul Mission collectively promote the conservation, development, and sustainable management of indigenous bovine breeds, fostering their long-term viability and contribution to India’s agriculture sector.


Sources: Press Information Bureau (pib.gov.in)


Q1. With reference to Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM), consider the following statements: 

  1. Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) aims to boost milk production by developing and introducing better foreign bovine breeds in India. 
  2. India has the largest population of cattle in the world, followed by China. 
  3. RGM is implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only 

(d) None 

Answer: (d) 


Q2. Consider the following pairs : 

Initiative Aim of the Scheme
1. Gopal Ratna Awards Acknowledge NGOs for their role in indigenous breed conservation.
2. Kamdhenu Awards Recognize Gaushalas maintaining the best indigenous breed herds and practising optimal management.
3. Gokul Gram Establish Centres of Excellence for holistic and scientific development and conservation of indigenous breeds.
4. National Kamdhenu Breeding Centre (NKBC) Establish integrated cattle development centres to focus on the development of indigenous breeds


How many of the abovementioned are correctly matched ?

(a) Only one 

(b) Only two 

(c) Only three 

(d) All Four 

Answer: (a)

Q3. Discuss the significance and objectives of the Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) in India’s agriculture sector. How does RGM address the challenges posed by climate change and declining populations of indigenous breeds?

No Comments

Post A Comment