10 Aug SSLV-D1/EOS-02 Mission
ISRO launched its first Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV-D1) from Sriharikota.
- It launched Earth Observation Satellite-EOS-02 and a co-passenger student satellite ‘Azaadi SAT’ into low earth orbit (LEO).
- However, after a successful lift-off at the initial stage and separation of its three stages, the rocket placed satellites into a 356 km x 76 km elliptical orbit instead of the designated 356 km circular orbit, making satellites no longer usable.
Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)
- ISRO-developed SSLV is a rocket to launch satellites weighing less than 500kg in Low Earth Orbit and 300 kg in Sun Synchronous Orbit (SSO).
- It is a 3 stage Launch Vehicle configured with three Solid Propulsion Stages and a liquid propulsion-based Velocity Trimming Module (VTM) as a terminal stage.
- SSLV is configured with three solid stages 87 t, 7.7 t, and 4.5 t.
- SSLV is capable of launching Mini, Micro, or Nanosatellites (10 to 500 kg mass)
- It is the smallest vehicle at 110-ton mass at ISRO.
- It will take only 72 hours to integrate, unlike the 70 days taken now for a launch vehicle. Only six people will be required to do the job, instead of 60 people.
- The other features include: it will reduce the cost of launch missions (is likely to cost a fourth of the current PSLV), shift the burden of commercial launch from PSLV, Launch on demand feasibility, etc.
TYPES OF ORBITS
NEO (Near Earth Orbit)
- It lies at a height of about 400 km above the surface of the earth.
- It is the orbit closest to the earth, therefore the satellite orbiting in NEO has to overcome the greater gravitational force of the earth.
- Usually, experimental satellites are launched in the NEO.
LEO (Low Earth Orbit)
- It lies at a height of about 900 km above the surface of the earth.
- Here both experimental and operational satellites are launched. E.g. Remote Sensing Satellite etc.
GSO (Geostationary Orbit)
- It lies at a height of 36,000 km above the equator of the earth.
- It orbits around the earth with a period equal to earth’s average rotational period of 23 hours 56 min. 4.09 sec.
- Communication satellites and broadcast satellites operate in this orbit.
- Satellites like GSAT series etc.
Sun-synchronous Orbit (SSO)
- SSO is also called a heliosynchronous orbit .
- SSO is a particular kind of polar orbit. Satellites in SSO, traveling over the polar regions, are synchronous with the Sun.
- The SSO satellites rotate w.r.t earth from north to south.
- Altitude range:- 200- 1000 km.
- It is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet’s surface at the same local mean solar time.
- More technically, it is an orbit arranged so that it processes through one complete revolution each year, so it always maintains the same relationship with the Sun.
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