27 Jul A plan to combat monkeypox
A plan to combat monkeypox
(GS Paper-II, Polity,Constitution,Governance,Social Justice and International Relations)
Source: The Hindu
What’s the problem?
Monkeypox was deemed a global public health emergency by the World Health Organization (PHEIC).
- A zoonosis is a disease that spreads from sick animals to humans, including squirrels, rats that were poached in Gambian, dormice, and several kinds of primates.
- It is brought on by the monkeypox virus, a species of the Orthopoxvirus family.
- The transmission and infection are thought to occur in African rodents and monkeys.
- Transmission happens when contaminated things come into contact with bodily fluids, lesions on the skin or internal mucosal surfaces, or respiratory droplets.
- Transmission from person to person is scarce.
- Monkeypox was once considered one of the neglected tropical illnesses.
- The monkeypox vaccines employed in the smallpox eradication operation also offered protection from that disease.
- Typically, monkeypox is a self-limiting illness with symptoms that last between two and four weeks.
- The case fatality rate has recently been between 3 and 6 percent.
- PHEIC is the highest degree of alert that the global health organisation can issue, and it is one step away from being classified as a “pandemic.”
- Prior to monkeypox, only polio and SARS-CoV-2 were still being spread.
- The WHO Director-General deemed monkeypox to be a PHEIC following a divided decision of the IHR Emergency Committee on the matter.
The decision’s influencing factors
- Information supplied by nations
- Serious, abrupt, unusual, or unexpected bear ramifications for public health beyond the affected State’s national boundary and may necessitate rapid international action are the three requirements for reporting a PHEIC under the International Health Regulations.
- the Emergency Committee’s recommendations
- Uncertainty regarding scientific theories and data
- There is a health risk.
- Several national leaders will now be alert for monkeypox and on the watch for it.
- The choice to designate it as a PHEIC also creates opportunities for additional sources of funding.
- The WHO may issue non-binding recommendations to nations, but if those nations deviate from them, they must provide a scientific justification.
What part did WHO play in keeping monkeypox under control?
- Supporting nations conduct risk assessments and launch public health initiatives
- developing and promoting testing capabilities
- involving and safeguarding the impacted communities
- stepping up public health and surveillance efforts
- In hospitals and clinics, improving clinical management and infection prevention and control
- accelerating study into the utilisation of medicines, vaccines, and other techniques
What approach needs to be taken to keep the disease under control?
- The COVID-19 pandemic experience has demonstrated that governments take action to prevent “panic.”
- To appropriately summarise and distribute the nature of the threat, the government must start working in concert with the States.
- In order to develop effective defences should the necessity arise, Indian labs and biotech corporations must intensify their research and mine their armoury.
- States that have recently imported instances of monkeypox in the human population must take action to stop the virus from spreading from person to person.
- It is planned to consult behavioural scientists, elected officials, members of civil society, and representatives of affected communities on strategies to prevent stigmatising those who are afflicted.
- It is necessary to step up surveillance for illnesses that are comparable to monkeypox and to report weekly updates to WHO.
- For the screening, triage, isolation, testing, and clinical assessment of suspected cases of patients with monkeypox, it is necessary to follow the advised clinical care pathways and protocols.