Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Mitigating Emissions for Climate Change

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Mitigating Emissions for Climate Change

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)”. The topic “Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS)” has relevance in the Environment section of the UPSC CSE exam.

For Prelims:

About Carbon Capture and Storage?

For Mains:

GS 3: Environment

Applications of Captured CO2?

Challenges in CCS Implementation?

Enhancing CCS Implementation?

Why in the news:

Carbon capture technology is essential for mitigating emissions from sectors such as cement and chemicals. However, its current predominant application is in extracting additional oil from underground reserves.

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS):

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a crucial process designed to combat carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions arising from industrial activities and fossil fuel combustion, especially in power generation. The primary objective of CCS is to prevent substantial amounts of CO2 from entering the atmosphere, thereby curbing global warming and climate change.

Approaches to CCS:

CCS consists of two primary methods:

  • Point-Source CCS: This approach involves capturing CO2 directly at its source, such as industrial smokestacks.
  • Direct Air Capture (DAC): DAC aims to remove CO2 already present in the atmosphere.


Mechanisms of Point-Source CCS:

The process of CCS comprises several key steps:

  • Capture: CO2 is isolated from other gases produced during industrial processes.
  • Compression and Transportation: Captured CO2 is compressed and transported through pipelines.
  • Injection: The CO2 is injected deep into rock formations underground, remaining stored for extended periods.


Diverse Applications of Captured CO2:

CCS has various applications, including:

  • Mineralization: CO2 can be combined with minerals to create stable carbonates for long-term storage.
  • Synthetic Fuels: CO2 can be combined with renewable hydrogen to produce synthetic fuels.
  • Greenhouses and Agriculture: Captured CO2 enhances plant growth in greenhouses and indoor farms.
  • Dry Ice Production: CO2 can be used to produce dry ice for various purposes.


Indian Initiatives:

India is establishing two National Centres of Excellence in Carbon Capture and Utilization to advance CCS research and technology.

Challenges in CCS Implementation:

  • Cost Considerations: CCS projects entail significant initial costs for infrastructure setup.
  • Geological Storage Challenges: Identifying suitable rock formations for CO2 storage and preventing leakage is complex.
  • Fossil Fuel Industry Concerns: Some fear CCS might prolong the use of fossil fuels, hindering the transition to cleaner energy sources.


Enhancing CCS Implementation:

  • Natural Climate Solutions Integration: Combining CCS with natural solutions like reforestation can boost effectiveness.
  • Global Collaboration: International partnerships and knowledge sharing accelerate CCS development.
  • Balancing CCS and Emission Reduction: CCS aligns with the Paris Agreement but must accompany emission reduction efforts to combat climate change effectively.

India’s Commitment: In line with its Nationally Determined Contribution, India aims to reduce the emissions intensity of its GDP by 45% by 2030.

By adopting CCS alongside emission reduction strategies, the world can take a significant step toward achieving climate goals and mitigating the impacts of global warming.


plutus ias current affairs eng med 9th August 2023

Q.1 Which of the following is/are advantages of zero tillage in agriculture? 

  1. Sowing wheat without burning the residue of the previous crop is possible.
  2. Direct planting of paddy seeds in wet soil without the need for a nursery of rice saplings is possible.
  3. Carbon sequestration in the soil is feasible.

Select the correct answer:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Q.2 Which of the following options could serve as potential sites for carbon sequestration ?

  1. Abandoned coal seams
  2. Exhausted oil and gas reservoirs
  3. Underground deep saline formations

Select the correct answer:

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Answer: (d)

Q.3 “Discuss the significance and challenges of implementing Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology. Also, examine the ethical and environmental considerations associated with the utilization of CCS technology, and suggest strategies to strike a balance between CCS adoption and the imperative of transitioning to cleaner energy sources.”

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