25 Dec Webb Telescope : Exposure of New secrets of the Universe GS paper III , Source : The Indian Express
Webb Telescope : Exposure of New secrets of the Universe- Today Current Affairs
Context : Today , by Saturday (25th Dec 2021 ) international space agency NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) , the largest and most powerful space telescope ever built will be launched from French guiana , on the northeast coast of the south America , on the European Ariane 5 Rocket, The Hindu Analysis
What is Webb telescope : The Hindu Analysis
This telescope is also known as the name of next generation space telescope (NGST)
The name of this telescope is on the name of James Webb who is former NASA administrator and a great scientist of America
This telescope is built with international collaboration of various space agencies like NASA , ESA (European Space Agency), CSA (Canadian Space Agency) .
It is an engineering marvel comparable to the earth based Event Horizon telescope (EBEHT) that produced the photographs of black holes. With the help of the photographs of black hole we could detect gravitational waves
It is also positioned much deeper into space , at a spot L2 (one of the Lagrange Points).
It has the large mirror (Approximately , the diameter of the mirror is 21ft and the height is approximately almost up to two story building )
The mirror will capture infrared light directly coming from deep universe while facing away from the sun
It is shielded five layered, a big size approximately 78 and 36 ft , kite shaped sunscreen which is capable of blocking the heat coming from the sun and it would bring the temperature down. The temperature of the sun facing side would not be more than 110 degree centigrade while on the other side it would be maintained at – 200 to -230 degree centigrade.
The extremely cold temperature is required to detect the extremely faint hot signals from various galaxies so that further research would be done.
The size of the mirror and the sun screen are too large therefore it was very difficult to fit into any rocket. Therefore some foldable items were made which would be unfolded in the space.
lagrange points: The Hindu Analysis
There are 5 lagrange points. Lagrange points are the points where the gravitational force of two body systems (Mass) enhance the region of attraction and repulsion . This can be used for the less fuel consumption for the spacecraft and maximum stability of spacecraft.
L2 is the position directly behind earth in the line joining the sun and earth
It would be shielded from the sun by the earth
History of Time machines in the space: The Hindu Analysis
Powerful space telescope is often called a time machine . because with the help of these telescopes we can predict far away objects . The light coming from various galaxies and stars and other sources of the universe started their journeys millions years ago . With the help of these telescopes we predict the period of time when these lights started their journeys . Hubble space telescope was sent during the decade of 1990 and present telescope is much more developed
On the basis of the above description, we can understand the mechanism of a telescope and the utility of a telescope in space . ISRO has also launched many telescopes in space. Among them , ASTROSAT was an important one . For prediction of the climate, weather, we can use these telescopes. The Webb telescope definitely would be helpful to unlock the universe secret