Discuss the steps taken by the government in regard to land reforms. Evaluates the socio-economic impacts of land reforms.
Briefly define land reform.
Discuss the steps taken by the government for land reform.
Mention the positive impacts of land reform as a measure of social upliftment and economic development.
Assess the success and failure of land reform in the light of socio-economic development.
Land Reforms are major policies for rural development. Designed to break the old economic structure of rural India. It was an impetus to the modernization of agri production and productivity.
The objective of land reforms is to enhance Equality, Efficiency. Effectiveness, Economy by:
Improving distribution of ownership
Modernizing irrigation and using HYV seeds, pesticides, fertilizes, etc.
Improving land use
Steps taken for land reforms:
Abolition of intermediaries
Fixity of tenure
Ownership rights of land
Cooperativization of agriculture
Because of the abolition of intermediaries 20 million tenants came into direct contact with the state.
6 mm hectare of fallow land distributed to landless and marginal tenants.
7.7 mn tenants were given ownership rights.
Shift in the occupation of the lower castes.
Decline in migration.
Generation of conflict due to legislation.
Emergence of naxalism in Bihar, UP
Eviction of landless laborers.
Shortage of manual labor at the time of sowing and harvesting in Punjab and Haryana.
Increase in absentee landlordism.
Policy of land restoration did not touch the adversities of tribals.
Agrarian movements used in politics and terrorism.
Family nuclearised to evade land reform.
Heavy expenditure on marriage because of conspicuous income.
Increase in Caste conflicts, Gender discrimination, Female infanticide, Dowry practices.
Rural-Urban migration was checked.
Poor tenants couldn’t benefit.
Landless laborers existed.
Class basedStratification in place of caste based.