Explain the different types of soil in India with their geographical region.

DWQA QuestionsCategory: QuestionsExplain the different types of soil in India with their geographical region.
akash deep Staff asked 3 months ago

Explain the different types of soil in India with their geographical region.


Briefly describe the procedure of formation of soil.

You may explain 8 types of soil along with their roughly marked zones in India.

Conclude it by highlighting the importance of soil and associated concerns.

1 Answers
akash deep Staff answered 3 months ago

Ans. Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials which develops on the Earth’s surface and is capable of supporting plant life. The major factors affecting the formation of soil are relief, parent material, climate, vegetation and other life forms including man-made factors also.

According to ICAR, India has 08 soil types:

Alluvial soil

Black soil

Red soil

Laterite soil

Mountain and Forest soil

Arid or Desert soil

Saline and Alkaline soil

Peaty and marshy soil

Alluvial soil:

It is light to ash grey in color. It is poor in nitrogen and phosphorus but moderately porous and permeable and rich in potassium, humus and lime. It is of two types khadar and bhangar.

Black soil (cotton soil):

It is black in color with a high quantity of magnesium, iron aluminium and lime and is deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus. It has high moisture retaining capacity.

Red soil:

It develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern part of the Deccan Plateau. It is poor in nitrogen, phosphorus and humus. Major crops are grown tobacco, pulses, potatoes etc.

Laterite soil:

Laterite has been derived from the Latin word ‘Later’ which means brick. These soils are poor in organic matter, nitrogen, phosphate and calcium, while iron oxide and potash are in excess. Hence, laterites are not suitable for cultivation. However, application of manures and fertilisers are required for making the soils fertile.

Mountain and Forest soil:

Forest soil is formed in forest areas where rainfall is higher. Found in the high mountain slopes e.g. Himalayan region, Hilly areas.

Arid or Desert soil:

They are present in the areas of Rajasthan and Gujrat and in some low rainfall plateau regions. It lacks the moisture content due to excess heat. Cultivation is not possible in this soil without irrigation facilities.

Saline and Alkaline soil:

It is deficient in moisture and humus. It contains a large amount of salts so it is infertile. Found in dried up lakes of Rajasthan and Rann of Kutch.

Peaty and marshy soil:

It is rich in moisture and inundation by high tide has made it infertile soil. It is found in the delta region, Kerala, some parts of Uttarakhand.

Soils are a very important resource as they support all life forms. Recently, due to human intervention, soil degradation has been accelerated which must be reversed to save a life.

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