Explain provisions of the Indian Constitution that anticipates federalism
Discuss provisions that denote unitary features in the Indian Constitution
Demonstrate why it is more tilted towards the Centre
The Indian Constitution is a living and contested document.
Indian Constitution provides a strong principle of federalism, namely, a written constitution that fosters three layers of government, power separation between local, state, and the Centre, the supremacy of the Constitution, independent judiciary, and bicameralism. These provisions anticipate strong federalism.
On the other hand, there are many provisions, namely, single citizenship, residuary power, the flexibility of the constitution, all India-Services, the appointment of Governor, and emergency provisions that provide immense power to the Centre. These are the features that hinder strong federalism in India.
Partition compelled the makers of the Constitution to establish a strong Centre so that further secessionist tendencies can be mitigated. In addition, Indian federalism is not ‘coming together’ like the USA, it is a ‘sharing together’ kind of federalism.
It is federal in form and unitary in spirit. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar rightly described that Indian federalism is unitary as well as federal as per the requirement of the time and circumstances.