“AI-based ‘Ele-fence’ to reduce man-animal conflict”

“AI-based ‘Ele-fence’ to reduce man-animal conflict”

This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details of “AI-based ‘Ele-fence’ to reduce man-animal conflict”. This topic is relevant to the “Environment & Ecology” section of the UPSC—CSE Exam.


Why in the news?

The inaugural deployment of the nation’s pioneering artificial intelligence-driven smart barrier, known as ‘Ele-fence,‘ aims to reduce the increasing incidents of human-wildlife conflict in the area. Spearheaded by White Elephant Technologies, an R&D firm based in Kochi, this pilot initiative is supported by the Kerala Forest Department.


About news:

  • The proposed 70-meter Ele-fence integrates a comprehensive array of surveillance, real-time monitoring, control features, and preventive and protective measures.
  •  The design incorporates extensive research into elephant behaviour in conflict-prone scenarios. Equipped with AI-powered logical trip wires, the fence provides early detection of elephant intrusions.
  • It includes auditory and visual alarms to deter elephants from approaching the protected areas. 
  • As elephants approach within a range of 50 to 60 meters, multiple cameras capture live footage, triggering immediate alerts to local communities. 
  • The system notifies the nearest Rapid Response Team (RRT), forest offices, and the central forest control room with real-time Video feeds of the fenced area. Commissioning of the Ele-fence is anticipated by the end of July.


Human-Animal Conflict:


Human-animal conflict occurs when wildlife’s presence or behaviour directly threatens human interests, resulting in disputes and adverse effects on people and wildlife.


Causes of Human-Animal Conflict:

  • Loss of natural habitats
  • Increasing wildlife populations
  • Agricultural Practices Attracting Wildlife
  • Wildlife encroachment into human settlements for resources
  • Human intrusion into wildlife habitats for illegal activities
  • Habitat degradation from invasive species



  • Fatalities among humans and animals
  • Injuries to both humans and animals
  • Destruction of crops and agricultural land
  • Increased incidents of violence against animals


Deaths due to Human-Animal conflict:

  • From 2018 to 2021, 222 elephants were killed due to electrocution nationwide. During the same period, 29 tigers fell victim to poaching, with an additional 197 tiger deaths currently under investigation. 
  • Regarding human casualties resulting from conflicts with animals, elephants were responsible for the deaths of 1,579 individuals over a three-year span: 585 in 2019-20, 461 in 2020-21, and 533 in 2021-22. 
  • The highest number of fatalities occurred in Odisha (332), followed by Jharkhand (291) and West Bengal (240). 
  • Tigers were responsible for 125 human deaths in reserves between 2019 and 2021, with Maharashtra accounting for nearly half of these fatalities (61).

Government Initiatives to Address the Conflict:

  • The Standing Committee of the National Board of Wildlife (SC-NBWL) issued an advisory for managing Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC), empowering gram panchayats under the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 to address issues posed by troublesome wildlife.
  • The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna offers additional coverage to compensate farmers for crop damage caused by HWC.
  • Efforts include increasing fodder and water resources within forested areas, establishing inter-departmental committees, implementing early warning systems, erecting barriers, setting up circle-specific control rooms with toll-free hotlines, and identifying conflict hotspots.
  • Immediate relief is provided through interim ex-gratia payments within 24 hours of an incident to victims and their families.

Way Forward:


  • Habitat Management: Protecting and Restoring Natural Habitats involves creating wildlife corridors, establishing protected areas, and implementing sustainable land-use practices to reduce the need for wildlife to encroach on human settlements in search of food and shelter.
  • Crop Protection Measures: Fencing, Scare Devices, and Crop Diversification Techniques such as fencing, scare devices, and crop diversification can help protect crops from wildlife damage, reducing economic losses for farmers.
  • Deploying Early Warning Systems: Developing and deploying early warning systems, such as alerting communities about the presence of wildlife nearby, can help prevent human-wildlife conflicts and mitigate threats to human safety.
  • Community Engagement and Education: Educating local communities about coexisting with wildlife, raising awareness about the importance of conservation, and providing training in conflict resolution techniques can foster greater understanding and tolerance toward wild animals.
  • Setting Up Conflict Resolution Mechanisms: Establishing wildlife conflict response teams or hotlines can facilitate timely interventions and minimise conflicts between humans and animals.
  • Protecting Ecological Connectivity: Protecting the ecological connectivity of species and their habitats from threats such as infrastructure development can help ensure the safe movement of animals and reduce conflicts.
  • Implementing Sustainable Land Use Practices: Sustainable land use practices, such as land-use planning and advance warning systems, can help reduce human-wildlife conflict by keeping animals away from human settlements and crops.
  • Community-Led Interventions: Supporting community-led interventions such as land-use planning,  timely access to state support for damage, and advance warning systems can help mitigate human-wildlife conflict.
  • Innovative Solutions: SMS Chips and GIS Mapping embedded in elephant tracking collars to send early warnings to nearby residents and GIS mapping to identify conflict hotspots can help proactively address human-wildlife conflict.
  • Ecotourism: Assigning a monetary value to wildlife through ecotourism can uplift impoverished regions by providing job opportunities and boosting local economies, thereby reducing human-wildlife conflict.


Download plutus ias current affairs eng med 22nd June 2024


Prelims Based Question:

Q. Consider the following statement related to TRAFFIC:

  1. It is legally binding.
  2. TRAFFIC is a collaboration of WWF and UNEP.

Which of the following is/are statements correct?

  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2


Answer: D

Mains based Question:

Q. Discuss repeated death of animals due to habitat destruction. How can human-animal conflict be reduced by an innovative environmental approach?


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