19 May Monkeypox Spreading Through “Possible Sexual Transmission”
Monkeypox Spreading Through “Possible Sexual Transmission” – Today Current Affairs
Why in News?
A case of monkeypox has been confirmed in US after infections were
reported across Europe. Monkey pox is rare and potentially dangerous.
What is the monkeypox?
Monkey pox is rare disease that is caused by infection with
monkey pox virus. Monkey pox virus belongs to the Orthpoxvirus
genus in the family Poxviridae.
Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs primarily in
tropical rainforest areas of Central and West Africa and is occasionally
exported to other regions.
It was first time discovered in 1958 in monkeys, when outbreaks
of a pox-like disease occurred. After the research the name given that
‘monkeypox’. The first human case recorded in 1970 in the Democratic
Republic of the Congo (DRC) during a period of intensified effort to
eliminate smallpox. Since then monkeypox has been reported in several
other countries of the Africa continent (e.g., Cameroon, Central African
Republic, Cote d’lovire, Gabon, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone).
Transmission : The Hindu Analysis
Outside of the Africa monkeypox have occurred due to linked
international travel or imported animals including cases in the US.
The natural source of monkeypox remains unknown. However
African rodents and non-human primates (monkeys, rope squirrels, tree
squirrels, Gambian poached rats, dormice) may spread the virus and
infect people. Monkeypox can be spread from a bite by an infected
animal, or by touching its blood, body fluids or fur.
The virus that causes monkeypox has only been recovered
(isolated) twice from an animal in nature. In the first instance (1985),
the virus was recovered from an apparently ill African rodent (rope
squirrel) in equator region of the DRC. In the 2nd (2012), the virus was
recovered from a dead infant mangabey found in the Tai National Park,
Symptoms : The Hindu Analysis
In humans, the symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder
than the symptoms of smallpox. Monkeypox begins with fever,
headache, muscle aches, and exhaustion. Monkeypox causes lymph
nodes to swell.
The incubation period for monkeypox is usually 7-14 days. But
can range from 5-21 days.
After 1 to 5 days a rash typically appears. The rash is confused
with chickenpox, because it starts as raised spots which turn into small
scabs filled with fluid.
Diagnosis : The Hindu Analysis
Detection of viral DNA by polymers chain reaction (PCR) is the
preferred laboratory test for monkeypox.
Prevention : The Hindu Analysis
• Avoid contact with animals that could spread the virus.
• Avoid contact with any materials, such as bedding, that has
been in contact with a sick animal.
• Isolation (infected person)
• Hygiene – for example, washing your hands with soap and
water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.
• Use PPE
Risk of life : The Hindu Analysis
According to WHO, in Central Africa, where people have less
access to quality health care, show the disease kills as many as one in
10 infected people.
Treatment : The Hindu Analysis
Currently, there is no proven, safe treatment for monkeypox virus
infection. For controlling a monkeypox outbreak, smallpox vaccine,
antivirals, and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) can be used.
Today Current Affairs
Countries should put in place regulations restricting trade of
rodents and non-human primates. WHO should provide support to
states with surveillance, preparedness and outbreak response activities
for monkeypox in affected countries.