27 Jul Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
TOPIC IN NEWS :- India adds five more Ramsar sites (THE HINDU)
Other Important Points
- New ramsar site :- 3 from Tamil Nadu, 1 each is in Madhya Pradesh, Mizoram.
- Now in India total there are 54 Ramsar sites, or wetlands of international importance.
- New ramsar sites are Karikili Bird Sanctuary, Pallikaranai Marsh Reserve Forest and Pichavaram Mangrove in Tamil Nadu, the Sakhya Sagar in Madhya Pradesh and the Pala Wetlands in Mizoram.
- Total Ramsar wetlands in India are spread over 11,000 sq.km — around 10% of the total wetland area in the country — across 18 States.
- After designating a particular site as Ramsar site does not necessarily invite extra international funds, but the Centre & States government must ensure that these tracts of land are conserved and spared from encroachment.
- Acquiring this label also helps to boost the locale’s tourism potential and its international visibility.
- National Wetland Inventory and Assessment compiled by the ISRO estimates India’s wetlands to span around 1,52,600 square kilometers.
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
- It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of Ramsar sites (wetlands).
- It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the convention was signed in 1971 and came into force in 1975.
- World Wetlands Day :- 2nd February.
- Presently 171 countries are the parties of ramsar convention. India is also a party, signed it on 1st February 1982.
- Any wetland site which has been listed under the Ramsar Convention that aims to conserve it and promote sustainable use of its natural resources is called a Ramsar Site.
- The Ramsar Convention works closely with six other organisations known as international organization partners (IOPs). These are: BirdLife International, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Wetlands International, WWF International, Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust (WWT). These organizations also support the work of the convention by providing expert technical advice, helping implement field studies, and providing financial support.
- The United Kingdom has the most number of Ramsar sites with 175. The country with the greatest area of listed wetlands is Bolivia, (148,000 square kilometers).
Ramsar site criteria
A wetland can be considered internationally important if any of the following nine criteria apply:
- It contains a representative, rare, or unique example of a natural or near-natural wetland type found within the appropriate biogeographic region.
- It supports vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered species or threatened ecological communities.
- It supports populations of plant and/or animal species important for maintaining the biological diversity of a particular biogeographic region.
- It supports plant and/or animal species at a critical stage in their life cycles, or provides refuge during adverse conditions.
- It regularly supports 20,000 or more waterbirds.
- It regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of waterbird.”
- It supports a significant proportion of indigenous fish subspecies, species or families, life-history stages, species interactions and/or populations that are representative of wetland benefits and/or values and thereby contributes to global biological diversity.”
- It is an important source of food for fishes, spawning ground, nursery and/or migration path on which fish stocks, either within the wetland or elsewhere, depend.”
- It regularly supports 1% of the individuals in a population of one species or subspecies of wetland-dependent non-avian animal species.”
Source :- Ramsar.org
Ramsar Site in India
- Sundarbans is the largest Ramsar Site of India
- Chilika Lake (Orissa) and Keoladeo National Park (Rajasthan) were recognized as the first Ramsar Sites of India
- Uttar Pradesh has the most number of Ramsar Sites in India. It has 10 Wetlands.
- Renuka Wetland (Area – 20 ha) in Himachal Pradesh is the smallest wetland of India.