11 Jul World Zoonosis Day
This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “World Zoonosis Day”. The topic “World Zoonosis Day” has relevance in the Environment section of the UPSC CSE exam.
About World Zoonosis Day?
About Zoonotic Diseases?
GS 3: Environment
Causes of Zoonotic Diseases?
India’s Initiatives Related to Zoonotic Diseases?
One Health Concept?
Why in the news?
The Department of Animal Husbandry and Dairying, Ministry of Fisheries, Animal Husbandry and Dairying recently conducted an awareness program on zoonotic diseases as part of the Aazadi Ka Amrit Mahostav initiative on World Zoonosis Day
About World Zoonosis Day?
World Zoonosis Day commemorates the first vaccination against a zoonotic disease.
Louis Pasteur administered the first vaccine for a zoonotic disease on July 6, 1885.
- World Zoonosis Day aims to raise awareness about the risks and impacts of zoonotic diseases on human and animal health.
- According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 60% of known infectious diseases and 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic.
About Zoonotic Diseases:
Zoonotic diseases are infections that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases can be caused by various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi.
Based on Pathogens:
- Bacterial Zoonoses: Diseases caused by bacterial infections, such as anthrax and brucellosis.
- Viral Zoonoses: Diseases caused by viruses, including rabies, Ebola, and Covid-19.
- Parasitic Zoonoses: Diseases caused by parasites, like toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis.
- Fungal Zoonoses: Diseases caused by fungi, such as ringworm.
Based on Animal Species:
- Wildlife Zoonoses: Diseases involving interactions between humans and wildlife, like hantavirus infections and avian influenza.
- Domestic Animal Zoonoses: Diseases transmitted by domestic animals, such as brucellosis and toxoplasmosis.
Based on Mode of Transmission:
- Direct Contact Zoonoses: Infections occurring through direct contact with infected animals or their fluids.
- Vector-Borne Zoonoses: Diseases transmitted by vectors like mosquitoes and ticks.
- Waterborne Zoonoses: Diseases transmitted through contaminated water sources.
Causes of Zoonotic Diseases:
- Environmental changes, wildlife interactions, livestock farming practices, and human behavior contribute to the emergence and spread of zoonotic diseases.
- Several factors contribute to the transmission of zoonotic diseases, including encroachment into natural habitats, wildlife trade, and inadequate food safety and sanitation measures. These factors create opportunities for interactions between humans, animals, and pathogens, increasing the risk of disease transmission. Encroachment into natural habitats disrupts ecosystems, bringing humans into closer contact with wildlife and their associated pathogens.
- Multisectoral collaboration, using the “One Health” approach, is crucial in preventing and controlling zoonotic diseases.
- Early detection and surveillance systems, hygiene practices, vaccination programs for animals, and public awareness are key prevention strategies.
India’s Initiatives Related to Zoonotic Diseases:
- National Animal Disease Control Programme (NADCP) for controlling Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis.
- Mobile Veterinary Units (MVUs) for providing veterinary services and raising awareness.
- Animal Birth Control (Dogs) Rules, 2023, focusing on anti-rabies vaccination and neutering of stray dogs.
- National One Health Programme for Prevention & Control of Zoonoses, promoting inter-sectoral coordination.
- Vaccination efforts for FMD and brucellosis.
One Health Concept:
- The One Health concept emphasizes the collaboration between human health, animal health, and environmental sectors to address zoonotic diseases and other health threats at their interface.
- It recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and ecosystem health and the need for a holistic approach to prevent and control diseases.
Q.1 Which of the following statements about zoonosis is correct?
(A) Zoonosis refers to diseases that are only transmitted from humans to animals.
(B) Zoonosis is caused exclusively by bacterial infections transmitted from animals to humans.
(C) Zoonotic diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi.
(D) Zoonotic diseases are limited to interactions between humans and domestic animals.
Q.2 Which of the following factors plays a significant role in the transmission of zoonotic diseases?
(A) Genetic factors in humans
(B) Air pollution levels
(C) Encroachment into natural habitats
(D) Global economic policies
Q.3 Critically evaluate the effectiveness of the “One Health” approach in addressing zoonotic diseases. Highlight the need for inter-sectoral collaboration and its implications for disease prevention and control.