This article covers “Daily Current Affairs” and the topic details “YOUTH: DEMOGRAPHY AND EMPLOYMENT INSIGHTS”. The topic “YOUTH: DEMOGRAPHY AND EMPLOYMENT INSIGHTS” has relevance in the Economy section of the UPSC CSE exam.

For Prelims:

Survey Highlights?

Youth Population in India?

For Mains:

GS 3: Economy



Way forward?

Why in the news:

In the dynamic and constantly changing realm of youth worries and dreams, a recent survey undertaken by Lokniti-CSDS across India has brought into focus the changing focal points of the younger generation.

Survey Highlights:

  • The survey showed a notable 7% rise in the number of people who are worried about the increase in prices of goods and services.
  • Among those who have received higher education like graduates, a significant 40% expressed their worry about the lack of jobs. Surprisingly, even among people who haven’t received formal education (non-literate individuals), 27% were concerned about unemployment due to the lack of  flexibility of job opportunities available to them.
  • The survey revealed that young women, regardless of their economic background, are particularly concerned about issues like poverty and the rising prices of goods and services.
  • Occupational Diversity: Almost half of the surveyed individuals (49%) were found to be engaged in some form of work. Of these, 40% were working full-time jobs, while 9% were working part-time. Interestingly, 23% of employed young people were running their own businesses, which shows a significant interest in entrepreneurship. Professions like doctors and engineers made up 16% of the workforce. Agriculture and skilled labor accounted for 15% and 27% respectively.
  • Job Aspirations: The survey uncovered that 16% of the respondents were most interested in jobs in the health sector. The education sector was the second most preferred choice, with 14% of youth showing interest. Moreover, 10% of the respondents supported science and technology-related jobs, as well as starting their own businesses. Surprisingly, when given the choice between a government job, a private job, or starting their own business, 60% preferred government jobs.
  • Entrepreneurial Inclination: The preference for self-employment has grown over time from 16% in 2007 to 27% in 2023. This indicates that more young people are inclined towards starting and managing their own businesses.

Youth Population in India:

  • India stands out with over 50% of its total population below 25 years of age and more than 65% below 35 years.
  • India is home to approximately 20% of the global youth population. This youthful population is seen as a valuable resource for India’s goal of becoming a USD 5 trillion economy.

It’s important to note that there isn’t a globally accepted definition for the age range that constitutes “youth.” In India, according to the National Youth Policy of 2014, individuals aged between 15 and 29 years are classified as youth.

Various United Nations (UN) agencies, instruments, and regional organizations have distinct and varying definitions of what age range constitutes “youth.” 


  • Human Capital Investment: The youthful population can be a “demographic dividend” if their potential is tapped effectively. This means that if young people are given proper education and skills, they can contribute significantly to the country’s economic growth.
  • Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Young individuals are often more open to new ideas, technologies, and starting their own businesses. They can drive the creation of new industries and startups, leading to a more diverse economy. Moreover, involving young people in modernizing and improving farming through technology could increase agricultural productivity.
  • Digital Connectivity: India’s young population is quite comfortable with technology. Their engagement with digital technologies can contribute to the growth of the digital economy.
  • Social Change: Young people are known for their energy and passion for change. They can lead movements for positive social change, advocating for important issues and raising awareness.


  • Underemployment and Skill Mismatch: Not all young people find jobs that match their education and skills. This leads to dissatisfaction and affects both their personal growth and the overall economy.
  • Mental Health and Stigma: Mental health issues are becoming more common among young people, but there is a stigma attached to seeking help. This cultural stigma can discourage young people from getting the support they need.
  • Digital Divide: While many young people have access to technology, there are still many who don’t. This unequal access to technology creates disparities in education, job opportunities, and access to information.
  • Gender Inequality: Despite progress, gender inequality remains an issue, particularly affecting young women’s access to education, job opportunities, and decision-making.
  • Political Apathy: Many young people in India feel disconnected from the political process, leading to their concerns not being adequately represented in governance.

Government Schemes Related to Youth:

  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana: A scheme aimed at providing skill development and training to make young people more employable.
  • YUVA: Prime Minister’s Scheme For Mentoring Young Authors: This scheme supports young writers and authors by providing them with mentorship and guidance.
  • Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) Scheme: A comprehensive program for the holistic development of children and young people.
  • National Youth Policy-2014: A policy framework that outlines the government’s approach to youth development.
  • National Skill Development Corporation: A body that works to skill India’s youth for better employability.
  • Rashtriya Yuva Sashaktikaran Karyakram Scheme: A program focused on empowering youth through various initiatives.

Way Forward:

  • Integrated Skill Ecosystem: To bridge the gap between theoretical knowledge and practical skills, it’s important to create a well-rounded skill development ecosystem that includes education, hands-on learning, apprenticeships, and online learning platforms.
  • Civic Engagement Platforms: Developing mobile apps that turn civic engagement into an interactive and rewarding experience can encourage more informed political participation among young people.
  • Entrepreneurship in Traditional Crafts: By combining traditional craftsmanship with modern design and marketing techniques, young artisans can create successful businesses while preserving cultural heritage.
  • Youth Diplomacy and Cultural Exchanges: Facilitating exchanges between young people from India and other countries can promote global understanding, diplomacy, and cross-cultural friendships. Initiatives like the Y20 Summit can play a role in this.


plutus ias current affairs eng med 24th August 2023

Q.1 Disguised unemployment is typically characterized by:

(a) a significant portion of the population remaining without jobs

(b) absence of other viable employment options

(c) marginal labor productivity being negligible

(d) workers demonstrating low productivity


Q.2 Consider the following statements regarding Youth in India:

  1. According to the National Youth Policy of 2014, individuals aged between 15 and 29 years are classified as youth
  2. India is home to approximately 20% of the global youth population.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2


Q.3 Discuss the implications and recommendations for India as it navigates through the demographic window of opportunity characterized by a “youth bulge.”


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