CRISPR: beginning to deliver

CRISPR: beginning to deliver

Prelims: the importance of national  and international relation

Mains: GS paper III, IT and space field awareness.

 Why is it in the news?

  • For the last 3 years, the gene–editing technology also known as CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), with about unlimited abilities has produced flawless results in Clinical Trials.
  • India permitted a 5-year Project to develop CRISPR to eradicate, sickle cell anemia.

What is genome editing?

  • These are a kind of DNA editing technology.
  • By using genome editing technologies, scientists can change DNA, change the physical features of eye colour, and reduce the disease risk.
  • These technologies work like scissors, they cut the DNA in a particular spot, and after that scientists can add or remove, or can replace the DNA, where it was cut.
  • During the late 1900s CRISPR technologies were developed around the world.s.

CRISPR technology?

  • CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is a new genome editing tool developed in 2009.
  • After the development of the CRISPR tool, it becomes easier to work with DNA than before.
  • Advantages of CRISPR: It is simpler, faster, low cost, and has more accuracy than the earlier invented editing tools.
  •  It is a kind of unique technology, by which geneticists and medicine researchers edit the parts of the genome adding or altering portions of the DNA in living organisms  of DNA sequence
  •  It is made of two molecules that introduced the change in DNA

What is CRISPR-Cas9?

  • They are kind of an enzyme named Cas9.
  • It works as a pair of “molecular scissors “, which can cut the two strands of DNA at a particular location in the genome so that bits of DNA can alter.
  •  A small piece of RNA is known as RNA (gRNA).
  • It is made of a small piece of pre-designed RNA sequence (about 20 bases long) located in a longer RNA scaffold.
  • The scaffold part binds to DNA and the pre-designed sequence ‘guides’ Cas9 to the right part of the genome
  • This ensures that the Cas9 enzyme cuts the DNA at the correct point in the genome.
  • Scientists can use DNA repair machinery to introduce changes to one or more genes. in the genome of a cell of interest.
  •  The guide RNA is structured in a way to locate and find the binds to a specific sequence in the DNA.
  • The guide RNA has the RNA bases that complement that targeted DNA sequence in the genome.
  • The Cas9 follows the guide RNA to the exact location, in the DNA sequence and makes a cut across both strands of the DNA.
  • In this stage, the cell recognizes the damaged DNA and then tries to repair it.

sources

https://bit.ly/3BNEd7R(the national human genome research institute)

https://bit.ly/3QM7NPf(CRISPR: beginning to deliver)

https://www.yourgenome.org/facts/what-is-crispr-cas9/(What is CRISPR-Cas9?)

Plutus IAS Current affairs eng med 19th Sep 2022

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