India and China agreements of Border Tranquility
- Since 1993 Number of Agreements
- In 1993, the Agreement on the Maintenance of Peace and Tranquillity along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas
- In 1996,the Agreement on Confidence-Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas
- In 2005, Protocol for the Implementation of Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas.
- In 2002, Establishment of a Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on india-China Border Affairs
- In 2003, Agreement on Border Defence Cooperation.
key features of these agreements
- Peaceful resolution of boundary question.
- no use force against the each other “by any means”
- respect and observe the Line of Actual Control (LAC) by both the sides
- military exercises would be undertaken only at specified levels with prior notification being given for such exercises near the LAC
- prior notice would be given regarding flights of combat aircraft within 10 kilometres from the LAC
- if border personnel of the two sides came face-to-face due to differences in alignment of the LAC they would exercise self-restraint and avoid an escalation of the situation
- channels of communication and border personnel meetings in case of contingencies were stipulated.
Case of China and Russia resolution of Boundary dispute How?
- Russia shows restraints even though it is a big country
- Russia unilaterally conceded the demand of chinese counterparts and paved the way for future relations. But this is absent in india and china relation.
- the Soviet Union to undertake unilateral concessions and asymmetric reductions in military strength vis-à-vis China
- China must show the willingness.
- India always moves through diplomatic relations.
- Increase in the mobility of military.