14 Jun Demand stokes illegal rosewood felling (GS-1, Geography, GS-3, environment and ecology)
Posted at 14 Jun 2021 in Current Affairs, GS Paper I, Science and technology, Social Issues 0 Comments
Context:- A steep demand in the international market for musical instruments and furniture caused illegal felling of the endangered tropical hardwood tree.
What is Evergreen forest:-
Conditions for Evergreen Forest:-
- More than 77% humidity required.
- More than 250 cm rain-fall
- More than 25 degree centigrade temperature.
Properties of evergreen forest:-
- They are thickly forested.
- Canopy density is too high.
- Presence of creepers and epiphytes, sparse undergrowth interspersed with clearings
- They occupy about 7% of the earth’s surface.
- mostly near the equator.
- Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber Cinchona are the examples of evergreen forests.
About National forestry policy:-
- The National Forest Policy 1952
- It was aimed at bringing one-third of the total land area with 65% in hilly and 25% in plains under the forest cover.
- It also suggested the extension of tree lands on river/canal banks, roads, railways, cultivable waste and degraded lands.
forest policy was adopted in 1988:
- it’s main emphasis was on the protection, conservation, regeneration, and development of forests.
Laws regarding forestry:- They basically to regulate the use of forests, ban on cutting of trees and encroachment on forest lands:
- Forest Conservation Act, 1980 was passed for reserved forest areas.
- Environmental Protection Act gave the Central Government powers to protect and improve the quality of the environment and preventing pollution.
- The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006,
- It recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for in case of dispute over the land.
Issues in the evergreen rainforest:-
- Shifting cultivation in the north east and in the southern states.
- Illegal felling:- Illegal cutting of tree in the southern states by Jungle mafia
- Illegal export to the other countries such as Bangladesh and developed countries.
- Jungle mafia problem:- Nexus between criminals and government officials.