Demand stokes illegal rosewood felling (GS-1, Geography, GS-3, environment and ecology)

Demand stokes illegal rosewood felling (GS-1, Geography, GS-3, environment and ecology)

Context:- A steep demand in the international market for musical instruments and furniture caused illegal felling of the endangered tropical hardwood tree.

What is Evergreen forest:-

  • Conditions for Evergreen Forest:-

      • More than 77% humidity required.
      • More than 250 cm rain-fall
      • More than 25 degree centigrade temperature.
  • Properties of evergreen forest:-

    • They are thickly forested.
    • Canopy density is too high.
    • Presence of creepers and epiphytes, sparse undergrowth interspersed with clearings
    • They occupy about 7% of the earth’s surface.
    • mostly near the equator.
  • Ebony, Mahogany, Rosewood, Rubber Cinchona are the examples of evergreen forests.

About National forestry policy:-

  • The National Forest Policy 1952
      • It was aimed at bringing one-third of the total land area with 65% in hilly and 25% in plains under the forest cover. 
      • It  also suggested the extension of tree lands on river/canal banks, roads, railways, cultivable waste and degraded lands.
  • forest policy was adopted in 1988:

    • it’s main emphasis was on the protection, conservation, regeneration, and development of forests.

Laws regarding forestry:- They basically to regulate the use of forests, ban on cutting of trees and encroachment on forest lands:

  • Forest Conservation Act, 1980 was passed for reserved forest areas.
  • Environmental Protection Act gave the Central Government powers to protect and improve the quality of the environment and preventing pollution.
  • The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006,
    • It recognizes the rights of forest-dwelling Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest dwellers over the forest areas inhabited by them and provides a framework for in case of dispute over the land.

Issues in the evergreen rainforest:-

  • Shifting cultivation in the north east and in the southern states.
  • Illegal felling:- Illegal cutting of tree in the southern states by Jungle mafia
  • Illegal export to the other countries such as Bangladesh and developed countries.
  • Jungle mafia problem:- Nexus between criminals and government officials.

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