17 Jun Energy inefficiency can short circuit cooling India (GS-3, Science and technology, The Hindu, Editorial)
Posted at 17 Jun 2021 in Current Affairs, Environment and climate change, GS Paper III 0 Comments
Context:- climate change will give rise to global temperatures. This will give More frequent and intense heat waves. There have been 660 heat waves across India, These led to 12,273 deaths across the breadth and length. This climate change led rise in temperature will increase the demand for cooling.
A Delhi survey results:-
- It was a door to door household survey.
- 43% of the households own an AC.
- 39% own coolers.
- The way households use ACs also differs quite a bit.
- Most households use an AC for three to four hours a day.
- 15% use ACs for over eight hours a day.
- Half of the households set their ACs between 24°C26°C.
- 27% prefer their AC temperature to be between 21°C23°C.
- Every 1°C increase in AC set point temperature can lead to additional 6% energy savings.
- Only 7% of the households have an energy efficient (starrated) fan.
- 88% of the coolers are locally assembled.
What are the obstacles in achieving the targets under cooling action plan and India’s target to fight against climate change:-
- Households did not know of the Star Labelling programme.
- Lack of awareness in households about energy efficiency’s best practices.
- Higher upfront cost of Air conditioners and simultaneous low market availability of efficient air conditioners.
- Government passive efforts in achieving the aims.
- Issue in the implementation of plans.
- Use of non energy cooling methods such as natural ventilation.
- Majority of investments in cooling technologies such as improving the infrastructure
- Need of the behavioral change in the population about Energy efficiency etc.
- Awareness campaigns on the benefits of energy efficiency to all stakeholders.
- Subsidies and financial incentives which will help in decreasing the higher upfront costs.
- Encouraging the use of passive cooling alternatives which includes energy efficient building designs, decreasing of cooling loads etc.
What is India’s cooling action Plan:-
Objectives of ICAP:-
- Assessment of cooling requirements across sectors for about next 20 years.
- Mapping the technologies that are available to cater the cooling requirement including passive interventions, refrigerant-based technologies and alternative technologies such as not-in-kind technologies,
- Provide suggestion about the interventions in each sector to provide for sustainable cooling and thermal comfort for all,
- Focus on skill set of Refrigeration and air-conditioning(RAC) service technicians
What are the Targets:-
- By year 2037-38 there should be reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 %
- Reduction of refrigerant demand by 25% to 30% by year 2037-38.
- Reduction of cooling energy requirements by 25% to 40% by year 2037-38.
- Training and certification of 1 lakh servicing sector technicians by the year 2022-23 which will be under Skill India Mission.
- Recognize “cooling and related areas” of research under the national S&T Programme.
Environmental, Social and Economic benefits of ICAP:-
- Thermal comfort for all which specifically includes cooling for Economically Weaker Section (EWS) and Low Income Group (LIG) housing
- Sustainable cooling so that low (Greenhouse Gas)GHG emissions related to cooling.
- Doubling Farmers Income for which plan will help to create better cold chain infrastructure which further enhances the value of produce to farmers, less wastage of produce
- Skilled workforce for better livelihoods and environmental protection, there by skill Indian mission.
- Make in India will help domestic manufacturing of air-conditioning and related cooling equipment.
- Robust R&D on alternative cooling technologies will give thrust to innovation in the cooling sector.
What are India’s target about INDC ( Intended Nationally Determined Contributions):-
What is INDC:-
- Every country which is a party to the Paris climate summit under UNFCCC has to submit her goal so that the overall target of Paris submit can be achieved.
- India has submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
- The INDCs are recognized under the agreement and they are not legally binding.
- India has to achieve the GDP emissions intensity by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 below 2005 levels.
- India has to increase the share of non-fossil fuels-based electricity to 40 per cent by 2030.
- India has to achieve an increase in the forest cover which will absorb 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2030.
What is UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) all about:-
- It was an outcome of the Earth summit which took place in 1992. This earth summit took climate change as the center stage and help in supporting the global response to the threat of climate change.
- This Convention has 197 Parties which make it almost universal in nature. There is a treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
- The UNFCCC is also a precursor treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
- It’s secretariat is located in Bonn, Germany.
What is Paris climate Deal:-
- signed on 22 April 2016.
- A global effort to curtail the rise of global temperature this century below 2-degree Celsius above pre-industrial levels
- A global effort to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
- Develop mechanisms to help and support countries that are very vulnerable to the impact of climate change.
- Carbon Dioxide emissions reductions by 20%