18 Oct Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 GS- 2 Poverty, Growth & Development
Recently, Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2021 was released by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI). The Index considers data from 109 countries and 5.9 billion people.
The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) was launched by the UNDP and the OPHI in 2010. MPI is based on the idea that poverty is not unidimensional (not just depends on income and one individual may lack several basic needs like education, health etc.), rather it is multidimensional. The index shows the proportion of poor people and the average number of deprivations each poor person experiences at the same time.
A person is multidimensionally poor if she/he is deprived in one third or more (means 33% or more) of the weighted indicators (out of the ten indicators). Those who are deprived in one half or more of the weighted indicators are considered living in extreme multidimensional poverty. MPI is significant as it recognizes poverty from different dimensions compared to the conventional methodology that measures poverty only from the income or monetary terms.
MPI uses three dimensions and ten indicators which are:
Education: Years of schooling and child enrollment (1/6 weightage each, total 2/6);
Health: Child mortality and nutrition (1/6 weightage each, total 2/6);
Standard of living: Electricity, flooring, drinking water, sanitation, cooking fuel and assets (1/18 weightage each, total 2/6).