Human development report 2021-22

Human development report 2021-22

Human Development report

Pre: social development and economics 

Mains: GS paper III Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilisation of resources, growth, development and employment, Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country.

  Why is int the news?

Recently the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) released the latest Human Development Report (HDR)

Generally, the country’s score on Human Development is checked on the basis of the Human Development Index (HDI) and compared to the global average  and score of some other comparable countries

The HDI consists of three broad parameters: longevity, education and income per capita

What is the Human Development report?

It aims to come up with the expansion of opportunities, choice and freedom, choice and freedom.

UNDP has been releasing Human Development Reports (HDRs) since 1990 and has surveyed different themes through the human development approach.

Human Development Report 2021-22 is  themed on “ uncertain Times, unsettled lives unsettled lives: Shaping our future in a world in transformation.”

The human development Index :

HDI is a static index that checks the betterment of human development on the basis of four indicators

Life expectancy at birth

Expected years of schooling

Mean years of schooling

Gross national income 

It was started when two renowned economists from Mahbub ul Haq from Pakistan and Amartya Sen from India created the measure.

It was created as a compliment to the GDP, as it focused on the importance of human development in the growth process.

 The Human Development Index 2021-2022.

 

Life expectancy drop: 

A large contributor to the Human Development Index’s recent decline is a global drop in life expectancy, down

 In the last two years, life expectancy dropped to 71.4 years in 2021 from 72.8 years in 2019.

In the last two years, the pandemic put a devastating impact on billions of people worldwide, also the wars like Covid -19 and the war in Ukraine hit and interacted with the extent the social and economical shifts and hazardous planetary Changes.

The tops scoring countries are:

 European countries performed best overall, holding 8 top positions in the top 10.

The list of the countries  with their score is

 

Switzerland (1, 0.962)
Norway (2, 0.961),
Iceland (3, 0.959)
Denmark (6, 0.948),
Sweden (7, 0.947)
Ireland (8, 0.945),
Germany (9, 0.942)
Netherlands (10, 0.941).

 

Asian countries:

 Sri Lanka come up as the best performer in the Indian Sub-continent, at 73, with an index value of .782

   Followed by China (79 and 0.768),

               Bhutan (127 and 0.666),

                Bangladesh (129 and 0.661)

                India

                Nepal (143 and 0.602)

                Pakistan (161 and 0.544).

India scored 0.633 on the 2021 Human Development Index, which is considered as lower than the world average of 0.732.

  •   The life expectancy of India in 2021, is recorded at 67.2 years, at birth.

  Schooling in India: Expected years of schooling at 11.9 years and  mean years of schooling at 6.7 years,

The Gross National Income per capita of India stood at USD 6,590.

India’s gender inequality has ranked 122 on the Gender Inequality Index.

The IHDI indicates a percentage loss in HDI due to inequality. 

country

(HDI rank)

world India (132) Switzerland(1) China (79)
when HDI

adjusts the

inequality

19% fall 25% fall 7% fall 15% fall
income

share held

by poorest

40% of

18% 20% 20% 17%
Income share

held by the

richest 1%

17% 22% 12% 14%

 The IHDI value in 2019 for India was 0.537 (16.8% overall loss). 

Gender Development Index:

  • It checks the disparities in the HDI by the Gender
country

(HDI rank)

world India (132) Switzerland(1) China (79)
GDI 0.958 0.849 0.967 0.958
GNI per capita

for women

(in 2017 PPP$)

12,241 2,277 53,597 13,980
Income share

held by the

richest 1%

21,210 10,633 79,451 20,883

 

The GDI value for India in 2021 is 0.490.

HDI metric women are legging behind men the most is the income per capita.

Gender Inequality Index: 

Country

(HDI rank)

world India(132) China(79) Switzerland(1)
Maternal mortality

ratio(death per

100,000 lives

births)

225 122 29 5
adolescent

birth rate

(birth per 1,000

women ages

15-19)

43 17 11 2.2
share of seats in

Parliament

(% held by women)

26 13 25 40
female population

with at least

some secondary

education

(% ages 25 and older)

64 42 78 97
labour force

participation

rate (% ages

15 and older )

46 19 62 62
GII 0.465 0.49 0.192 0.018

 Gender Inequality Index (GII) presents a complex measure of gender inequality using three dimensions:

In GII, India is at the 122nd rank.

Reproductive health,

Empowerment and

The labour market.

 

  • Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI):.

The MPI is used to check the many problems that is faced by the people of developing countries in their health, education and standard of living.

In India, it was reported in 2019, that India had more than 382 million suffering from multidimensional poverty.

Country

(HDI rank)

India Bangladesh China brazil
Population in

severe MPI(in %)

8.8 6.5 0.3 0.9
Population in

vulnerable

MPI(in %)

19.3 18.2 17.4 6.2
Population living

below income

poverty line (%)

(PPP $1.90 a day)

22.5 14.2 0.5 4.2

 Planetary pressures-adjusted Human Development Index:

It balances the HDI for planetary pressures in the Anthropogenic to reflect a concern for intergenerational inequality, similar to the Inequality-adjusted HDI adjustment — which is motivated by a concern for intragenerational inequality.

The PHDI  value can be determined as the level of human development adjusted by CO2  emitted per person and the material footprint per person to account for excessive human pressure on the planet.

Sources :

https://bit.ly/3BSVAo0(theIndianExpress)

Plutus IAS current Affairs eng med 23rd Sep 2022

No Comments

Post A Comment