Why in news ?

COVID-19 recombinant nasal vaccine of Bharat Biotech’s got its approval from the Ministry of Health’s central Drugs Standard Control Organisation, for primary immunization of those who are under the age of 18 years and above in a situation of emergency.

Manusukh Mandaviya  the Health Minister has shared this information on Twitter


The nasal vaccine is a

  • The vaccines are generally given through different routes, among all of them the most common is to deliver the vaccine through injection shorts into the muscles (intramuscular), or into the tissue just between the skin and the Muscles.
  • There are two other ways to deliver the vaccine into the body administering the liquid solution orally into the body, which is generally practised for infants in some vaccines.
  • In some cases, the intranasal route is used, in which the vaccine is sprayed into the nostrils and inhaled.
  • Most of the viruses, like the coronavirus, enter the body through mucosa-wet, squishy tissues that line the nose, mouth, lungs and digestive tract-triggering a unique immune response from cells and molecules there.
  • Many viruses, including the coronavirus, enter the body through mucosa — wet, squishy tissues that line the nose, mouth, lungs and digestive tract — triggering a unique immune response from cells and molecules there.
  •  Scientists believe an intranasal vaccine can act against the virus more effectively to break the body’s barrier.
  • on the other hand, intramuscular vaccine sometimes fails to elicit this mucosal response, as they rely on the immune cells mobilized 

The nasal vaccine works 

  • The vaccine stimulates the response in the blood, in both the case of delivery routes,
  • For example, B cells would churn out the antibodies – Including a particular potent disease –fighter called IgG- to move in the body in search of the virus.
  • The T-Cell, another cell, would either help B cells produce antibodies or seek out and destroy the infected cells.
  • However, the vaccine, which is injected through the nose or mouth, also traps another set of immune cells that hangs around mucosal tissue.
  •  The B cells that live there can produce another type of antibody,  called IgA, that plays a prime role in killing airway pathogens.
  • In addition to this, the cell that is residing nearby will be able to memorise the pathogens that it encountered and will lifelong scout the areas where these were 1st encountered.


What are the advantages of NASAL Vaccine :

  • The nasal route has supreme possibilities for vaccination because of the organized immune systems of the nasal mucosa.
  • It is non-invasive and needle-free, painless.
  • It is easy to insert into the body,  as it does not require trained health care workers.
  • it can help to get rid of needle-associated risks (injuries and infections).
  • It will be suitable for children as well as for adults.
  • Scalable manufacturing, will possibly be able to meet the global demand.


Intranasal vaccines may be most beneficial for special populations:

    • It can be used in children and elderly people as it is easy to use, non-invasive
    • For HIV-infected patients with no fear of needle stick injuries
    • The multi-morbid patients who are  exhausted from injections
  • From a manufacturing point of view.
  • The prime advantage of using an intranasal route is. the dry or liquids form of the formulation can be used
  • This gives advantages to transportation and wastage issues, because a cold chain may not be required.
  • Longer shelf life can be achieved.

What are the Concerns:

  • There is a very low chance to back the effectiveness of this route of delivery till now and except for some flu,
  • They are safe but, their efficacy is tough to achieve as it deepens on multiple bioengineering approaches.


Sources indian express)

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