NATIONAL FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY IN POLICY FORMULATION GS- 2 SOCIAL ISSUES

 National family health survey is conducted across India at the district level in a multiphase manner and is often considered pointer to the future and NFHS began in 1992 for demographic assessment and its fifth edition is pending the survey of 2019- 2020 has given the silver lining for demographic transition. The result of the National family health survey is significant as it provides a detailed comprehensive multidimensional status of National health and demographic trajectory.

Key achievements of National family health survey-5: Today Current Affairs

  1. Population stabilization– TFR has declined and is below the replacement level of 2:1 i.e on average carrying two children over a lifetime is indicated by the fact that this generation of population will be exactly replaced. In fact I state wise breakup of national family health survey data confirm the declining tfr total fertility rate and has demonstrated India’s way of population stabilization.

  2. Improvement in sex ratio-it is the first time nationally that data of adult women is 1020 per 1000 men. As per National family health survey 2015-16, there were 991 women per thousand men as it is a greater improvement.

  3. Sex ratio at birth registered only a marginal improvement i.e 929 female child per thousand male child, which is only a bit higher than national health family survey-4 i.e, 919 female child per thousand male child. Despite improvement, male children have a higher chance for survival due to the persistent “son” preference mindset.

   

   Negative outcomes of national family health survey-5: The Hindu Analysis

  • Anaemia– it has increased to 67% from 58.6 %.

  • Lack of nutrition and inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables result in the deficiency of iron and vitamin b12. The significant increase in the proportion of enemies indicates that the centre program “Anaemia mukt Bharat” has remained stagnant.

  • Malnutrition– stunting, wasting and underweight are the indicators of multi nutrition and has shown an overall improvement, which is insufficient and requires a collective improvement in the field of poverty, maternal health and education. The improvement in this indicator of malnutrition is on account of the pandemic which led to the under-counting of incidence.

  • Overweight– increase in the phenomena of obesity among children, women and men is a cause of concern as it will further give rise to non communicable diseases. National family health survey measured for the first time blood sugar and hypertension among the population to raise concern regarding lifestyle diseases

  • Micronutrient deficiency– many essential vitamins and minerals are missing from Indian plate due to junk food habits and changing lifestyle which has gradually sidelined the traditional food habits.

  • Women reproductive health– there is increase in cesarean births and mostly private health facilities promote C- section for monetary gain. 

  • Low participation in family planning– female sterilization has increased to 37.9% which shows that the stereotype still remains to be broken.

        Conclusion

      Given India’s poor infrastructure and less expenditure on health and education, coupled with paint make hit the progress is above mentioned dimension is remarkable that data provided by National family health survey-5 will help in shaping the policies to correct the shortcoming and ensure equitable accessibility of service to all especially those impacted with social determinants input on demographic trends, health women’s empowerment, fertility, family planning etc, by National family health survey is secondary to the decadal census, yet it need to be recognised by policy makers to improve development indicators.

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