Kunming Deceleration: Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

Kunming Deceleration: Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

Kunming Deceleration: Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

The article talks about how the Global Biodiversity Framework impacts Environmental Ecology as well as biodiversity and climate change which is related to Daily Current Affairs for the UPSC examination.   

For Prelims:  Environment, Biodiversity, and climate change,

For Mains: GS-3 , Environment, International Treaties & Agreements

In news: At a recent summit in Montreal, 188 of 196 governments agreed on a new framework to slow the rapid loss of biological diversity, given the convention on biological diversity, the United Nations’ commitment to conserve and sustainably use Earth’s biodiversity, is a boost.

About Global Biodiversity Framework

  • The world must accomplish 23 tasks according to the framework by 2030. Given the terrible state of biodiversity, the goals are somewhat lofty.
  • The Aichi Targets, the most recent set of goals, were not achieved by 2020. Countries would have to make sure that this time was successful.
  • The 30-by-30 goal, which calls for safeguarding 30% of the world’s land and oceans by the end of the decade, was the deal’s most ambitious objective.
  • The 30-by-30 goal, which calls for safeguarding 30% of the world’s land and oceans by the end of the decade, was the deal’s most ambitious objective.
  • A Special Trust Fund (“GBF Fund”) has been requested from the Global Environment Facility to support the Global Biodiversity Framework’s implementation. This will guarantee effective implementation.

The agreement also requires nations to set about $200 billion annually for public and commercial sector biodiversity programs.

Aim and Objective of Global Biodiversity Framework

  • It aims to stop the steady loss of marine and terrestrial biodiversity. It means that people worldwide can have hope for genuine advancement in the efforts to stop the loss of biodiversity, protect and restore our lands and seas, and do it in a way that both protects the environment and upholds the rights of local communities and indigenous peoples.

What it meant to be 30 by 30 

  • A crucial proposal being discussed at the COP15, the “30 by 30” aim, which would grant 30% of the Earth’s land and oceans protected status by 2030, was mentioned in the declaration.
  • Along with this, there is a discussion about the need to reduce the use of chemicals in agriculture by half and to stop producing plastic trash.

Major Facts of Global Biodiversity Framework

  • The Biodiversity 2050 Vision is “Living in Harmony with Nature.”
  • The 2050 Vision for Biodiversity and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and their significance for achieving the goals of the CBD.
  • “Urgent Action on Biodiversity for Sustainable Development” will be the subject of the September 2020 UN Summit on Biodiversity.
  • Importance of biodiversity for preserving all ecological functions, as well as for promoting sustainable development, economic prosperity, and human and planetary health.
  • Worry that the continued loss of biodiversity will make it more difficult to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and other global objectives.
  • While acknowledging the advancements made over the past ten years under the 2011-2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, questions have been raised about its inadequacy to meet the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • Recognizing the existential danger posed by the unprecedented and connected problems of biodiversity loss, climate change, land degradation and desertification, ocean degradation, pollution, and rising dangers to human health and food security.
  • Recognizing that the primary direct causes of biodiversity loss—land/sea use change, overexploitation, climate change, pollution, and alien invasive species—share many common underlying causes of change.

Realizing that multisectoral engagement and prompt, comprehensive action are required to stop and reverse biodiversity loss, conserve it, and use it sustainably.

Global Biodiversity Framework

Global Biodiversity Framework

Major Commitments of the Global Biodiversity Framework

The statement specifies 17 commitments for member nations and sets basic goals for the restoration and protection of biodiversity. These pledges call for improved domestic and international cooperation on a number of fronts.

Protection of biodiversity

Ensuring the creation, acceptance, and use of a successful global biodiversity framework for the years after 2020 in order to stop the current loss of biodiversity and put it on a “path of recovery” by 2030.

Supporting the creation, approval, and execution of an efficient Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety Post-2020 Implementation Plan and Capacity Building Action Plan.

Expanding the use of ecosystem-based strategies

  • To combat biodiversity loss
  • Restore damaged ecosystems.
  • Increase resilience, reduce impact, and prepare for climate change.
  • Support the production of sustainable food.
  • Promote health.

Regulations and policy

  • Enhancing cross-sectoral biodiversity coordination mechanisms.
  • In order to ensure the successful implementation of the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework at the national level, the development and updating of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans must be accelerated and strengthened.
  • Increasing the amount of work done to make sure that the usage of genetic resources is shared in a fair and equitable manner.
  • Develop policies for the growth and control of biotechnology to make ensuring that its advantages are fairly distributed while reducing any negative effects on the environment.
  • Ensuring that post-pandemic recovery policies, programs, and strategies support sustainable and equitable development by helping to conserve biodiversity and utilize it sustainably.


  • Together with the mobilization of additional financial resources and the alignment of all financial flows for biodiversity conservation and sustainable usage, financial reforming, removing, or phasing out such financial policies that are detrimental to biodiversity.
  • Increasing the amount of aid given to developing nations in order to help them create the ability they need to implement the Global Biodiversity Framework after 2020.

Community Involvement and Participation

  • Allowing local communities, indigenous peoples, women, young people, civil society, local governments, academic institutions, the business and financial sectors, and other relevant stakeholders to participate fully and effectively in order to maintain the momentum for the implementation of the Global Biodiversity Framework after 2020.

What does it intend to accomplish?

  • Its major goal is to reiterate political commitment on a worldwide scale to addressing the biodiversity problem and to move forward with the process of developing the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).
  • Although not stated specifically, the proclamation aims to accomplish the “30 by 30” objective.
  • By 2030, it is anticipated that 30% of the land and sea areas in several nations will be protected.

It aims to reaffirm the Sharm el-Sheikh Declaration on Investing in Biodiversity for People and Planet and the Cancun Declaration on Mainstreaming the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity for Well-Being.

UPSC previous years questions:

Ques: The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment describes the following major categories of ecosystem services-provisioning, supporting, regulating, preserving, and cultural. Which one of the following is a supporting service? (2012)

a) Production of food and water

b) Control of climate and disease

c) Nutrient cycling and crop pollination

d) Maintenance of diversity

Solution (d)

Ques: With reference to ‘Global Environment Facility, which of the following statements is/are correct?

a) It serves as a financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’.

b) It undertakes scientific research on environmental issues at the global level

c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with the specific aim to protect their environment.

d) Both (a) and (b)

Solution : (a)

Ques: With reference to a conservation organization called Wetlands International’, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It is an intergovernmental organization formed by the countries which are signatories to Ramsar Convention.
  2. It works at the field level to develop and mobilize knowledge and use practical experience to advocate for better policies.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

a) 1 only

b) 2 only

c) Both 1 and 2

d) Neither 1 nor 2

Solution (b)


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