Under Sea Volcano Eruption in Tonga : A Geological Phenomenon and its impact

Under Sea Volcano Eruption in Tonga : A Geological Phenomenon and its impact

Under Sea Volcano Eruption in Tonga-  Today Current Affairs

Context : A massive volcanic eruption in Tonga That triggered tsunami waves around the pacific caused “significant Damage “ to the island nation’s capital and smothered it in dust. 

Introduction : 

  • A kingdom of multiracial habitant Tonga had suffered from volcanic activities. This country mostly covers tropical rainforest and white beaches and coral reefs. Its capital Nuku’alofa is very beautiful and its main island Tongatapu is protected by lagoons and lime stones . There is constitutional monarchy in this country 
  • The volcano activity is a geological phenomena  and by 16th Jan 2021 we observed a submarine volcano erupted in Tonga which brought the tsunami in the pacific sea. Volcano activities are not on surface only many volcanic activities occur inside the sea which becomes the main reason of the Tsunami 
  • In Fact these volcanic activities are seen on the rift  where  crustal plates are being formed . These Rift Zones are found on the ocean basins of the earth (Sea floor spreading centers). These are the places where these tectonic plates are moving away from each other . These sea floor spreading centers are lying below 2000 meters . Therefore we see these volcanic activities inside the sea and could not be seen from the surface of the ocean 


Basic Reasons of Volcanic Activities under the sea: The Hindu Analysis

  • Deformation of Earth’s Crust 
  • Explosion Due to reaction between volatiles in the magma and water which generates a significant quantity of steam.
  • When unlimited supplies of water gather near to the submarine volcanoes and because of the lava erupting onto a shallow sea floor or flowing into the sea from land, it may cool so rapidly that it shatters into sand and rubble. The result is the production of huge amounts of fragmental volcanic debris.
  •  submarine eruption occurs as a consequence of a magma plume rising through the Earth’s crust overlying an area of melting in the Earth’s mantle. These volcanoes are known as hotspot volcanoes 
  • Recent studies have revealed the presence of spectacular, high temperature hydrothermal plumes and vents (called “smokers”) along some parts of the mid-oceanic volcanic rift systems. This is other reason of violent activity 


Example of The Submarine Volcanic Activities: The Hindu Analysis

  • Perhaps the most famous submarine volcano is Krakatau, a submerged caldera located between Java and Sumatra.
  •  Metis Shoal, a submarine volcano near the Tonga Islands, has erupted nine times since 1851


Impact of Volcanic Eruption in Tonga: The Hindu Analysis

  • The eruption was too much powerful that it triggered the Tsunami that folded pacific coastline from Japan to America 
  • The capital Nuku’alofa s suffered significant damage 
  • Damage of surveillance , suspension of the flights 
  • Impact on humanitarian supply 
  • Peru has to close 22 ports as a precautions 



Volcano is a type of natural disaster . Submarine volcanoes are more dangerous in comparison to volcanoes on the surface of earth because these submarine volcanoes become the causes of Tsunami which generally brings more significant damage . The incident of the volcano eruption in Tonga impacted not only Tonga but many other countries . On the humanitarian ground USA also proposed support to Tonga. Conclusively , it can be said that these natural disasters are inevitable but we can reduce their influence over the loss of humans at least if we predict it earlier .  


Here we mention all information about Under Sea Volcano Eruption in Tonga-  Today Current Affairs.


plutus ias daily current affairs 17 january 2022

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